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of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  History of Philosophy, 2013, vol. 18.
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History of Philosophy, 2013, vol. 18.




N.A.Kanayeva. The Evolution of Th. Stcherbatsky’s Сonception of Indian Logic (on the basis of comparison between his books “Buddhist Logic” and “Teoriya poznaniya po ucheniyu pozdneishih buddistov”

The article examines the evolution of presentation of Th.Stcherbatsky’s Indian logic. For this purpose the author compares two books of Th. Stcherbatsky: “Teorija poznanija I logika po ucheniju pozdneishih buddistov” (1903–1909) and “Buddhist Logic” (1930–1932). The author suggests that the evolution of Th.Stcherbatsky’s ideas on the subject was determined by using two ways of interpretative translation. The first of them addressed a wide readership, second was professional-oriented. The paper provides proofs that Th. Stcherbatsky changed his interpretation of Indian logic in «Buddhist Logic» for more authentic, close in all senses to the understanding of traditional Indian philosophy, which has a sense-procreation mechanism of its own. If the aim of the Russian translation was an attempt to make shorter the distance between Indian and Western logical traditions and the translator used a lot of Western terms, in the English version the translator tried to do with the theoretical means of Indian logic.

Keywords: authentic interpretation, buddhology, conception of Indian logic, contraposition,darśana, indology, Indian epistemology, Indian logic, interpretation of a text from another culture, interpreting translation, modus of “parārthānumāna”, notion, “Nyāyabindu”, “Nyāyabindu-ţīka”, pramāņa-vāda, principals of translation, śāstra, Th. Stcherbatsky, vyāpti, yogacāra


L.I.Titlin. The Notion of Self in Pudgalavāda Buddhism

The paper investigates the notion of “Self” in Pudgalavādа – one of the least studied schools of Buddhism. Pudgalavāda is an «unorthodox» trend of early Buddhism, which holds the doctrine of the existence of “Self”, or person – pudgala. The author examines the history of the formation of Pudgalavāda, makes an overview of available literature on the topic and analyzes the concept of “Self” in the key texts of this philosophical trend, analyzes in detail the philosophical arguments of debating parties – classical Buddhism and Pudgalavāda Buddhism. The author comes to the conclusion of textual and philosophical heterogeneity of Pudgalavāda and notes that this unique teaching at some point of history was a serious alternative to the dominant ideological paradigm of Buddhism. The paper is accompanied by translations of excerpts from the most important sources on Pudgalavāda from Sanskrit and Pali to Russian made by the author. The article will be of interest to researchers in the fields of history of philosophy, philosophy of mind, cognitive psychology and to scholars investigating the problem of “Self”.

Keywords: Buddhism, Pudgalavāda, Self, person, pudgala, soul


S.V.Lobanov. Two Paradigms of Monism in the Bhagavad Gita Interpretation: Shankara and Abhinavagupta

The article represents a first attempt in Russian scholarship to compare two monistic paradigms of Indian philosophy – Shankara’s Advaita and Abhinavagupta’s Para-Advaita – on the material of their commentaries on Bhagavad Gita, i.e. Gita Bhashya and Gitartha Sangraha respectively. The examples of the Bhagavad Gita interpretation by two great commentators show clearly how they both adhere an idea of absolute unity of Atman and Brahman as the essence of Bhagavad Gita philosophy, but do interpret this unity in different ways and give principally different answers on other questions using the monistic paradigm. A crucial difference between their approaches, manifested in the mentioned commentaries as well, consists in Shankara’s “static” comprehension of inactive nature of Atman (and disappearance of all illusory “superimpositions” of maya upon him) and positive “dynamic” way of “self-recognision” (pratyabhijñā) as a consciousness, full of activity and really manifested into this world’s multiformity, in case of Abhinavagupta. 

Keywords: Abhinavagupta, Advaita, Bhagavad Gita, Gita, Gita Bhashya, Gitartha Samgraha, Kashmir Shaivism, monism, para-advaita, Pratyabhijna, Shankara, Vedanta


P.V.Khrushcheva. Energetic Pragmatism in Tamil Culture

The article focuses on the value attitude aimed on acquisition and preservation of energy and life force that is inherent in traditional society. This aim is pursued by most of the everyday prescriptions, social establishments and religious rituals. In order to specify this attitude the term «energetic pragmatism» is suggested. The phenomenon is examined basically on the pattern of Tamil culture where it appears to be most emphasized.

Keywords: energy, pragmatism, sacrifice, chastity, the sacred, the Tamil culture


Wang Ching. Establishment of the «Japanese Philosophy» and the «Chinese Philosophy»

The article presents a retrospective look at the history of the discussion in Sino-Japanese academic circles on the problem of «right to exist» or «legitimacy» of «Chinese philosophy» and «Japanese philosophy». The author shows that the main subject of this discussion eventually was the question «What philosophy is?» A specificity of the approach to the problem in contemporary scientific communities of China and Japan, as shown in the article, is to reject the comprehension of «Chinese philosophy» and «Japanese philosophy» from the point of view of Western definitions of philosophy and to return to the original definition of philosophy of ancient Greece as a creative process of finding universal truths. The author agrees with the modern Chinese scholars, who tend to see every philosophical tradition, whether Western, Chinese or Japanese, in terms of universality and particularity simultaneously. The author also shares their call for joint studies to promote the development of world philosophy in the new century through a dialogue between the different philosophical traditions that arose and existing in different historical and ideological conditions.

Keywords: Chinese Philosophy, Japanese philosophy, universality, legitimacy


S.Y.Rykov. Some Facets of Mohist Logic

Mohists (V–III BC) is one of the ancient Chinese schools of philosophy. The article describes some aspects of Mohist logic and theory of disputation. It involves analysis of interpretations of such major modern scholars as Hu Shi, A. Graham, Ch. Hansen, V. Spirin, A. Kobzev etc. On the basis of specific characteristics of Later Mohists’ teaching, their logic is claimed to be a «protologic». The article also outlines the place for the «protologic» in the history of Chinese rationality.

Keywords: Ancient Chinese philosophy, logic, Later Mohists, numerology, protologic


L.B.Karelova. The Evolution of Buddhist Doctrine of Returning of Debts of Gratitude and Japanese Labor Ethics Development

The article conveys origins and evolution in interpretation of the Buddhist doctrine of returning of debts of gratitude in Japanese traditional thought. The author connects this doctrine with the formation of the idea of duty as a basic principle of Japanese labor ethics. The main conclusion of the article is that not only Confucianism played decisive role in the formation of labor ethos and capitalist spirit in Asian countries, but in the case of Japan it was exactly Mahayanist Buddhist teaching reinforced by the morphologically close Confucian ideas that promoted the appearance of strong labor motivations comparable with that of Protestant ethics.

Keywords: Buddhism, Confucianism, duty, labor ethics, four debts of gratitude


M.V.Babkova. Refraction of the Chinese Chan Tradition in Dogen’s “Continuous Practice”

The article suggests analysis of Dogen’s “Continuous Practice” and aims to describe some special features of Dogen’s attitude towards Chinese Chan buddhism. Dogen’s treatment of “practice” is also considered. The article forestalls the publication of Dogen’s “Continuous Practice”.

Keywords: Dogen, Dogen and Chan, Dogen’s Ceaseless Practice, Dogen and Transmission of Dharma, Japanese Buddhism


Dogen. Continuous Practice (fragments)

In this text Dogen tells us different stories about the way of life of ancient Indian and Chinese buddhist Chan patriarchs and describes their attitude to the practice as an example and model for Zen trainees. “Continuous Practice” includes two parts: the first, “upper”, and the second, “lower”. Here the first part is published.

Keywords: Practice, Continuous Practice, mind-heart, Dharma, Way


N.V.Efremova. The Political Ideal of al-Farabi

The article depicts the characteristic features of the political ideal of al-Farabi, the founder of political philosophy in classical Arab-Islamic culture, as well as the specific al-Farabi’s synthesis of Antique and Muslim traditions. It also determines the place of Platonic political conceptions within the frames of al-Farabi’s doctrine and shows the influence of his ideas on the further development of Islamic political and philosophical thought.

Keywords: Islam, history of philosophy, falsafa, political philosophy, political ideal, al-Farabi, “Perfect State”, Platonism in Muslim culture


I.V.Kulagin. Shiite Islam and Imamate in Modern Iran

The article gives a brief overview of the evolution of Shiite Islam and its idea of Imamate. It also analyzes changes in the interpretation of Imamate in Iran after the Islamic revolution of 1979. Special attention is paid to the principle of «velayat-e faqih» (guardianship of the jurist).

Keywords: Shiism, Imamate, Homeini, velayat-e faqih

A.A.Lukashev. The Part-Union Correlation in the Mahmud Shabistari’s Poem-treatise “The Mystery Rose Garden”

The poem-treatise by medieval Persian philosopher Mahmud Shabistari “The Mystery Rose Garden” deals with the problem of the part-union correlation, moreover, it begins from the statement that part exceeds union. This unconventional formulation was caused by his approach to the God-world relation as a part and a Unit. The God is the Absolute One that gives rise to multiplicity by multiple manifestation in the things of the world, like number one that makes up the multiplicity of numbers repeating in them (3=1+1+1). So He becomes the part of the world as a union of many things, but the part that is both transcendent to the union of the universe as it’s origin and immanent to it as a form of His manifestation which therefore exceeds it.

Keywords: philosophy, Persian poetry, Mahmud Shabistari, the part-unit correlations, the God-world


Y.E.Fyodorova. “The Birds – Seekers of the Truth”: Analysis of the First Chapter of Farid al-Din ‘Attar’s poem “Manteq al-tayr ” (XII)

The article deals with the philosophical interpretation of the first chapter of the poem “Language of the Birds” (Manteq al-tayr), which was written by famous Persian Sufi poet Farid al-Din ‘Attar. This analysis is based on the reconstruction of the poetical sense of the text. This text was primordially organized by ‘Attar as having two levels of sense – the inner [hidden] and the outer [manifested].

Keywords: Farid al-Din ‘Attar, the Birds – Seekers of the Truth, Path to the Truth (tariqa), the animal nature of man (nafs), the inner (hidden) and the outer (manifested) levels of sense, expression (lafz), sense (ma‘ nan)


Farid al-Din ‘Attar. The Poem “Language of the Birdsˮ (fragment)

Basing upon the poetical description of the birds ‘Attar elaborates the sufi idea of specific practice of controlling the animal nature of man (nafs) and cites the legends of Quranic Prophets as an illustration of it.

Keywords: the animal nature of man (nafs), knowledge, birds


N.N.Seleznyov. The Laments of the Philosophers over Alexander the Great in The Blessed Compendium of al-Makīn ibn al-ʿAmīd

The Christian Arabic medieval historian (13th c. A.D.) Ǧirǧis al-Makīn ibn al-ʿAmīd is well known not only in Eastern Christian and traditional Muslim historiography, but also in Western scholarship since the 17th century. However, the first volume of his most important work – al-Maǧʿ al-mubārak (The Blessed Compendium) – still remains unpublished. The present article discusses the section of al-Makīn’s history devoted to Alexander the Great which contains laments of the philosophers over Alexander. The study includes a critical edition of the Arabic text of the laments based on four manuscripts, its Russian translation and a commentary.

Keywords: al-Makīn ibn al-ʿAmīd, Alexander the Great, Aristotle, laments, sayings of the philosophers, Ibn ar-Rahib, Eutychius of Alexandria


Ǧirǧis al-Makīn ibn al-ʿAmīd. Al-Maǧmūʿ al-mubārak (The Blessed Compendium). The Ninety Second from Adam: Alexander, Son of Philip the Greek, the Macedonian (fragment)

The present text is a critical edition of the hitherto unpublished laments of the philosophers over Alexander the Great which were included in the first volume of the historical work of the Christian Arabic medieval author (13th c. A.D.) Ǧirǧis al-Makīn ibn al-ʿAmīd.

Keywords: al-Makin ibn al-Amid, Alexander the Great, Aristotle, Antigonus, Philemon, Plato, Diogenes, Theon, medieval interpretations of the antique philosophical heritage


M.A.Severin. Subject and Subjectivity (Self) in Contemporary Studies of Consciousness: Comparative Approach

This paper represents a review of the collective essays dedicated to the problems of subjectivity («Self»). It includes papers of modern philosophers – buddhologists and specialists in Advaita-Vedanta on the one hand, and eminent modern phenomenologists and analytic philosophers, on the other. The review concentrates on the key problems, which may accompany any research dealing with the subjectivity: subject transcendence of “Self”and its contentfulness, diachronic unity of “Self” and its changing over time, experiencing the “Self” and lack of its substrate.

Keywords: Self, consciousness, Buddhism, Advaita-Vedanta, buddhology, indology, subjectivity, cognitive science, phenomenology


L.B.Karelova. Japanese Philosophy in the Context of International Philosophical Dialogue

The paper presents a critical review of the collective monograph «Japanese and Continental Philosophy. Conversations with the Kyoto School» (Bloomington&Indianopolis: Indiana University Press, 2011), prepared by the international group of Japanese and continental authors. It emphasizes the heuristic value of crosscultural dialogue which brings together different philosophical traditions.

Keywords: Kyoto school, dialogue, culture, East, West