STUDIES AND TRANSLATIONS
Anatoly Yakovlev. Locke’s Razor
The paradox of forbidden knowledge coming to light most dramatically in the context of the 17th-century Millenarianism serves as a key to Locke’s «Essay concerning Human Understanding». The forbidden knowledge had provoked the Fall, and now it appeared as a pre-condition for Christ’s Second Coming. Is there any possibility, then, to shun the forbidden knowledge, and in doing so to have the means of trespassing the imposed limits? Locke saw the criterion of the permitted in its utility. The related method of analogical extrapolation allowed to remain within the clearly drawn circle of useful knowledge and at the same time to broaden it by reasonably exercised accommodations.
Keywords: Millenarianism, forbidden knowledge, compass of understanding, way of ideas, angels, John Dee, Thomas Sydenham, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Isaac Newton, John Locke
Anastasia Yastrebtseva. Politics and Paideia. Republican Project of Public Education
In his «Five memoirs on public instruction» the French politician and philosopher of the Age of Revolution, Marquis Nicolas de Condorcet formulated the basic ideas of his five-levels educational model. This article focuses on its impact on school reform implemented by Jules Ferry in the 1880s. It argues that it was Condorcet, who developed the republican model of public education, which proved to be pioneering for post-revolutionary era and which retains its value nowadays. Condorcet’s plan was to create an educational system in which every citizen would have an opportunity to receive education – from primary to higher levels – free of charge. The one and only criterion for selection to pass to the new educational level should be the natural abilities and talents of a given person. To what extent these ambitious ideas of Condorcet were implemented by his followers? And what should be the role of the state in education of a new man?
Keywords: public education, republicanism, school, equality of opportunities, progress
Artyom Krotov. Paul Janet’s Metaphysics
The author analyses the system of Paul Janet, a prominent representative of the French nineteenth century spiritualism, particularly his ideas on the nature of philosophy and its structure, and also the main aspects of his doctrine of the soul, nature and God. The article examines the historical and philosophical concept of the French thinker, and presents an overall assessment of the value of his ideas for posterior philosophy. Janet’s system is directed to the search of the psychological foundations of metaphysics, it is characterized by the pursuit of demonstrative validity, as well as to a wide synthesis, which transforms philosophy into a most general «science of sciences», limited, however, by the facts, known in each specific age, and therefore incomplete in principle. Looking at philosophy in its historical dimension, Janet insisted on progress in the quest for solutions. To connect, to generalize knowledge accumulated by the humankind in a consistent and faithful to the great metaphysical achievements of the past: that was the overall pathos of Paul Janet’s philosophy.
Keywords: Paul Janet, French spiritualism, metaphysics, doctrine of soul, philosophy of nature, philosophy of the history of philosophy, theodicy
Dmitry Moiseev. The Political Thought of Giuseppe Mazzini
The author looks at the political philosophy of an Italian idealist of the 19th century Giuseppe Mazzini in the context of his life and the events of the unification of Italy – the Risorgimento. Representing Mazzini’s vision of the just government structure, the author brings to light the key notions of Mazzini’s philosophy, such as the people, the nation, the association, and the liberty. The political ontology of Mazzini’s republican ideal and the moral aspect of his theory become evident from his work «On the Duties of Man». The paper also reviews some aspects of Mazzini’s legacy appeal which came to the fore in the age of fascism.
Keywords: Giuseppe Mazzini, idealism, Risorgimento, political philosophy, intellectual history, liberalism, nationalism, fascism
Alexander Tchikine. Apperception in the Psychology of T. Lipps and the Early Phenomenology of E. Husserl
The notion of apperception, introduced by Leibnitz to counter Descartes' ideas on the limits of the conscious, was accepted by the German philosophy and found an interesting development: it allowed first the philosophers like Kant and Schopenhauer and then the fledgling German psychology as represented by Lipps and Wundt to speak of the unconscious. Edmund Husserl following the basic tenets of his phenomenological theory declares apperception superfluous, but through his borrowing of Lipps' theory of empathy he cannot discard this notion and uses it to define one of the kinds of givennes of the living body.
Keywords: apperception, psychology, phenomenology, Theodor Lipps, Wilhelm Wundt, Edmund Husserl
Viktor Vizgin. Quasi-Religion of Ratio as a Productive Impasse
The author looks at Husserl's later phenomenology, stated in «The Crisis of European Science and Transcendental Phenomenology», from the standpoint of Russian religious philosophy of existentialist denomination. The aim is to uncover the ultimate, religiously inspired motives of radical rationalism that had become apparent in the philosophy of the founder of phenomenology. The author shows them as underlying the German philosopher's thought, and in doing that resorts to the work of the Russian existentialist thinker Leo Shestov and his form of Husserl’s reception, as well as to Gabriel Marcel – the Christian existentialist, who practised the phenomenological method, although not of a Husserlian kind.
The radical rationalism of Husserl's phenomenology unfolded as a sort of a quasi-religious mission and attracted the outstanding thinkers of the XXth century. However, having received initial impulse, they departed widely from his transcendentalism and idealism. The article pays special attention to Hussel's attempt to create a consistent phenomenological doctrine turning to the non-theoretical roots of theoretical thinking, i.e the Lebenswelt. The author shows the contradictoriness of Husserl’s cause as a radical rationalist moving in the tradition of German classical idealism. The article's main thesis is formulated in its title. Husserl's phenomenology, which may be described as a quasi-religion of ratio, turns out to be a productive dead-end. Rather than the founder himself, Husserl’s distinguished followers demonstrated the productive potential of the new way of philosophizing, which the founder conceived more as a project, or a problem, but not as something to be performed in concreto, through specific phenomenological analyses.
Keywords: Edmund Husserl, transcendental phenomenology, German idealism, rationalism, science-centrism, religion and philosophy, Leo Shestov, Gabriel Marcel
Julia Rossius. The doctrine of Values in Emilio Betti’s Theory of Interpretation
The aim of this paper is to show that the doctrine of values as outlined by Emilio Betti in the Prolegomena to his General Theory of Interpretation (and as such going back, essentially, to Nicolai Hartmann) can be regarded as a body of preliminary arguments designed to substantiate the possibility of objective interpretation. That had been the central problem faced by Betti in his work on hermeneutics. Values, according to Betti, belong on the one hand, to the realm of «ideal objectivity» and, on the other hand, to the «living and thinking spirit». Once the values attain actualization in a representative form, they need to be transferred back to the realm of the ideal (into the content of spirit and thought), which is what constitutes the essence of interpretation. Interpretation as a process is understood by Betti dialectically, not as a static opposition of subject and object, but rather as a living interpenetration of two spiritual entities, the final goal of which is understanding.
Keywords: values, ideal objectivity, real objectivity, theory of interpretation, ethical taste, value esthesis, Emilio Betti, hermeneutics, Nicolai Hartmann
Michel Hulin. Reminiscences of Martin Heidegger
The author recollects his meetings with Martin Heidegger in the late 1950's – early 1960's. At that time, he was a student at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris. He came to Freiburg in order to prepare his Master’s Thesis «The aesthetics of Nietzsche» (under the supervision of Paul Ricœur). Michel Hulin describes the circumstances of his visits to Heidegger’s house in Zähringen and their conversation about Nietzsche (at that time, Heidegger was busy editing his former lectures on Nietzsche (1936–1946) that were to be published in 1961) and about other meetings and Heidegger’s remarks on his limited contacts with Indian thought.
Keywords: Martin Heidegger, Friedrich Nietzsche, reminiscences
Vladimir Starovoytov. Anxiety and the Ways to overcome it
This article describes different types of anxiety and the ways to overcome it. Anxiety, associated with the finiteness of man, was defined by Paul Tillich as existential. He singled out three forms of existential anxiety: anxiety in the face of fate and death, anxiety concerning guilt and blame, and anxiety in relation regarding vacuousness and loss of meaning. In her turn, Karen Horney introduces the concept of neurotic anxiety conditioned by attempts to find a half-way solution to the conflict of divergent trends. To Horney the neurotic comes to life in his imagination, when the internal pressure of the conflict becomes unbearable. According to G.S. Sallivan, the main need for personality is the need to remove or to avoid anxiety, which leads to the formation of the system of self, or anti-anxiety system, comprehending all areas of interaction. U. Bion believes that psychotic personality, whose intolerance of frustration prevails over the reality principle, uses a transformation into a hallucinosis to get rid of the pain of frustration. The study concludes that all ways of behavior conditioned by anxiety and frustration, testify to the presence of mental pain and its easing through imagination, even at the cost of a possible loss of self, of the mental annihilation.
Keywords: existential anxiety, pathological anxiety, neurosis, idealized image of the Self, the system of the Self, frustration, hallucinosis, mental annihilation
Benjamin Kilborne. Dreams, Katharsis and Anxiety
Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of «inside» and «outside» in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle’s notions of psyche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes’ focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud’s use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex.
Keywords: dreams, anxiety, doubt, Aristotle, Descartes, Freud, psychoanalysis and philosophy
PHILOSOPHERS ON WAR
Igor Dzhokhadze. Pragmatism and War
The article focuses on the anti-militarist ideas of classical American pragmatists and their 20th century successors. Thanks to Louis Menand’s «Metaphysical Club» we now understand pragmatism as a reaction to (and critique of) war and military regimes. Rocked by the horrors of the Civil War, pragmatists set about creating a philosophy that would ground their country in a more peaceful path. As they lived through the Spanish-American War and World War I, pragmatists learned to critique war in languages of democracy, reformist problem-solving, and pacifism.
William James, John Dewey and Randolph Bourne regarded militancy as a constituent element of human nature: «ancestral evolution has made us all potential warriors» (James). However, pragmatists argued, war does not exist because man is a «fighter», but because social conditions and forces have led the «combative instinct» into such an unfortunate channel, and so we need to redirect this instinct and find some «moral equivalent» of war.
Keywords: pragmatism, war, German philosophy, militarism, pacifism, civil service, William James, John Dewey, Randolph Bourne, Richard Rorty, Richard Bernstein
William James. The Moral Equivalent of War
In his essay on «moral equivalent» of war, published in McClure’s Magazine (August 1910), William James puts forward his antimilitarist «socialistic utopia». World pacifists, James argues, should enter more deeply into the aesthetical and ethical point of view of their opponents. Until the peace party devises some substitute, some moral equivalent, for the disciplinary value of war, their utopian goal is neither desirable nor possible. A permanently successful peace-economy cannot be a simple pleasure-economy, James insists. The martial virtues, although originally gained by the race through war, are absolute and permanent human goods. Patriotic pride and ambition in their military form are specifications of a more universal and enduring competitive passion. They are its first form, but that is no reason for supposing them to be its last form. Arguing in this vein, James proposes that instead of military conscription there be «a conscription of the whole youthful population to form for a certain number of years a part of the army enlisted against nature». The military ideals of hardihood and discipline then would be wrought into the growing fiber of the people; no one would remain blind to man’s real relations to the globe he lives on, and to the permanently solid and hard foundations of his higher life. To coal and iron mines, to freight trains, to road-building and tunnel-making, to foundries and stoke-holes, and to the frames of skyscrapers, would healthy young people be drafted off, according to their choice, to «get the childishness knocked out of them, and to come back into society with healthier sympathies and soberer ideas».
Keywords: war, pacifism, militarism, utopia, discipline, labor, peace-economy, patriotism, socialism
ON THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE DEATH OF ALEXANDRE KOYRE
Anna Yampolskaya. Truth in the Political Philosophy of Plato:interpretations by Alexandre Koyre and Martin Heidegger
The author analyses the problem of truth as it is presented in the interpretations of Martin Heidegger and Alexandre Koyré, covering Plato’s Republic. Heidegger reads it primarily as a poetic myth of concealment and disclosure, revealing the intellection of Being. The space of political is a space of a historical manifestation and at the same time of the concealment of truth. The history of manifestation of truth is also a history of hiddenness and oblivion. Thereafter the untrue, being a privative mode of the true, opposes it no more; the true and the untrue do not make up a hierarchical pair. Koyré gives a completely different treatment of the Republic, reading it as a dramatical piece, forcing the reader to take sides. The truth is self-referring and placed at the high end of the hierarchy of values ladder, whereas the untrue (as distinct from the plain error) is always a deception, designed to disrupt the horizontal bonds between the citizens that constitute the political space as such. While for Heidegger the paradigmatic example of Dasein relation to Being is a poet who is sort of privy to God, Koyré keeps in place the hierarchical deference of the untrue world of the religious and mythopoetical to the true world of science. The author of the article demonstrates the inseparable link between the aesthetic visions and the political conceptions entertained by Koyré and Heidegger.
Keywords: truth, political philosophy, art, Plato, Alexandre Koyré, Martin Heidegger
Daria Drozdova. Alexandre Koyre in the Historiographyof Science of the 20th century
Thomas Kuhn has noted that Alexandre Koyré accomplished the local «scientific revolution» by changing the character of the historiography of science. However he should be merited not only by the novelty of approach to the scientific revolution of the 17th century but also by his capacity to mediate between the continental philosophy of the beginning of the 20th century which treated the scientific revolution as a philosophical and the community of professional historians of science which at that time looked for the grounds of consolidation. Koyré was convinced that science is unconceivable without philosophy, since it presupposes an ontological interpretation of its object. This conviction allowed him to present a new approach to the history of science, and focus on the method of conceptual analysis aiming at the search of the philosophical presuppositions of scientific theories. Thereby Koyre related the history of science to the history of ideas and brought it closer to hermeneutics.
Keywords: Alexandre Koyré, historiography of science, scientific revolution, Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, epistemology, science and philosophy
Ivan Kurilovich. Two Premises of the Hegelian Philosophyin the Interpretation of Alexandre Koyre
The author shows, that Koyré interprets Hegel's philosophy as consequent to two diverse premises. The first is intuitive, concealing in itself (or behind itself) a certain thought-idea-image. The second is theo-logical, under which the doctrines of German mystics appear to be an abstraction, an external example (primarily of a structural character, rather than a direct borrowing), a pattern of Hegelian thought. For that the author described in general terms the ideas of Alexandre Koyré on the history of philosophy and religion in relation to his views on the development of scientific knowledge. The author is particularly interested in the applicability of the concept of attitudes mentales to the Hegelian philosophy. Koyré's conception of Hegelian philosophy is compared with the texts of Hegel himself, and the author then offers his assessment of the Koyré's interpretation.
Keywords: history of philosophy, Hegel, French Hegelianism, Alexandre Koyré
Vitaly Gorokhov. Methodology of the Historical and Critical Analysis of the Conceptual Schemata of Science of Alexandre Koyre
Koyré is an interesting philosopher, and at the same time he is a historian of science. His philosophy of science is based on the detailed analysis of the history of science, and his historical investigations are guided by his philosophy. Koyré wrote that Galileo was not a student of engineers, but was a teacher to them. Galileo was directly associated with engineers and artificers of his age. His career had a «technological» beginning. Galileo was one of those who created new science not only as a model of experimental activity. He demonstrated how to use the new scientific knowledge for the purposes of technology.
Keywords: conceptual schemata of science, philosophy of science, history of science, Alexandre Koyré, Galileo Galilei
Irena Vdovina. «(Post)phenomenology. New phenomenology in France and abroad». Moscow, 2014 (In Russian)
The book reviewed brings to the readers’ attention the novel areas and the new method of investigation in contemporary phenomenology. It includes the translations of seven articles by the leading contemporary phenomenologists, namely Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Emmanuel Levinas, Michel Henry, Jean-Luc Marion, Marc Richir, Henri Maldiney, Rudolf Burnet, with prefaces written by the experts on contemporary phenomenology, namely A.V. Yampol’skaya (DSc), V.I. Strelkov (PhD), G.I. Chernavin (PhD), A.S. Detistova (postgraduate, Russian State University for Humanities). S.A. Sholokhova (doctoral candidate, Catholic University of Louven). The same persons are at the same time the translators. A separate section of the book includes the «Interpretations» featuring A.V. Yampol’skaya, Z.A. Sokuler, S.A. Sholokhova, and the French philosopher Jean-Luc Benoit.
Talking of the (post)phenomenology the compilers of material highlight the shift of the contemporary phenomenologists from the transcendental subjectivity to the empirical subject afficered by his own history. The description of the subjective experience becomes the main method of phenomenological investigation, and it acquires general validity through its transition to the history, which retrospectively imparts the essential and necessary character to the accidental and the empirical.
Keywords: description, intentionality, reduction, history, empirical subject, subjectivity, afficered subjectivity, passion, determination, face, trace, flesh, life, sense, God
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