TABLE OF CONTENTS
THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY
Artem Krotov. The Principles of the Analysis of the History of Philosophy in the Interpretation of «Ideologists’» School (Degerando)
The article analyzes the main ideas characteristic of the concept of the history of philosophy put forward by J.M. Degerando. Examined are his periodization and classification of philosophical theories, and his ideas about the prospects of the development of metaphysics. Degerando completely subordinated the history of philosophy to epistemological principle, which, in opinion of “ideologists”, must be the basis of metaphysics. It is easy to feel the spirit of the Enlightenment in the works of Degerando: it is expressed in the criticism of prejudices, in the ways of argumentation, in the appeal to the selfless lovers of truth, typical of the “Encyclopedia”, and in the emphasis of the moral aspects of cognition. It seems that from today’s point of view Degerando’s project was not exceptionally successful. It rather failed and did not lead to the conclusion of peace between philosophers. At the same time there is no doubt the the author of “The Comparative History of the Systems” stimulated some tendencies in the development of European philosophy. In particular, he outlined the program of future eclectic spiritualism. His thesis that the nature of human intellect can be grasped through investigations into the history of philosophy was developed in the works of philosophical comparative studies. Comparison of the process of fact collection in the history of philosophy to the work of a naturalist unites Degerando’s conception with positivism.
Keywords: J.M. Degerando, «Ideologists’» school, French philosophy, philosophy of the history of philosophy, comparative philosophy
WORLD PHILOSOPHY: THE PAST AND THE PRESENT
Igor Evlampiev. Gospel of Truth and the Birth of the Christian Philosophy
The article analyzes the features of the metaphysical system described in the Gospel of Truth. This text of Gnostic Christianity is regarded as the original source of the philosophical tradition passing through the whole history of European Christian philosophy. The Gospel’s key features are the pantheistic model of God-world relations; the idea of God, who has no existence, who is Divine Nothing; the idea of “spontaneous” appearance of the existing world from the non-existent God; the idea of certain “depth” in God, which is the source of evil and imperfection in the world; the understanding of space and time as forms of the presence of God's will in the world; and the idea of super-rational connection of a human person to the non-existent God. The author explicates the original Christology of the Gospel of Truth, according to which Christ bears the super-rational knowledge of God, but does not function as the redeemer of sins as in Orthodox Christianity. The Gospel of Truth has an affinity with the Gospel of John such that these two texts together can be understood as the main source of metaphysics and ethics of Gnostic Christianity.
Keywords: early Christianity, pantheism, Gnosticism, Gospel of John, non-existent God
Natalya Tatarenko. Concepts of Art and Ieal in Hegel’s Aesthetics in Light of New Sources
This paper analyzes two key concepts of Hegel's aesthetics: the concept of art and the concept of the ideal, or the idea of beauty. A distinctive feature of this text is the primary sources chosen for the analysis. This is one of the first attempts in the Russian history of philosophy to examine Hegel’s idea about art and its purpose, as well as his concept of the ideal in the art, based on Hegel's lectures on aesthetics recently published in Germany. The student notes of the lectures he read in 1823 and 1826 in Berlin expand our understanding of his philosophy of art. In addition, the author gives a brief history of publication of Hegel’s lectures on aesthetics and describes the challenges faced by contemporary researchers of Hegel's philosophy of art.
Keywords: H.W.F. Hegel, H.H. Hotho, aesthetics, art, Schein, ideal, Dasein, forms of art
Andrey Prokofyev. The Root of the Whole Moral Life of a Man (Moral Philosophy of Vladimir Soloviev and the Problem of Shame)
The paper analyzes the conception of shame proposed by a brilliant Russian thinker – Vladimir Soloviev. The theoretical goal of this inquiry into Soloviev’s moral philosophy is to discover some arguments clearing the emotion of shame of its suspected non-moral or quasi-moral character. The suspicion arises out of the fact that common experience of shame is connected not only with norms of non-harming, helping and caring, but also with various sexual taboos. If we assume that morality is a normative system aimed at the other person, shame turns out to be an emotion that makes it see morally indifferent demands as moral, and thus disorienting the moral subject. Soloviev insists that sexual shame is a genuine moral emotion playing a central part in moral life. His belief rested upon the general moral significance of sexual shame, its role in the ascetic morality and its close ties with the altruistic morality. The author evaluates these arguments against the background of contemporary moral psychology and ethical theory.
Keywords: ethics, moral emotions, sexual shame, altruistic morality, ascetic morality, V.S. Soloviev
Alexey Gaginsky. Post-metaphysical Theology in the Context of the History of Ontology
The article deals with analytics and critics of post-metaphysical theology. Therefore it has two goals: a theoretical goal – to question some theses of post-metaphysical theology, and a methodological one – to show the inner logic of this phenomenon, putting it in the context of the history of ontology. Based on this methodology, the author summarizes the key milestones of European ontology, and against this background examines the post-metaphysical theology and phenomenology of givenness. In particular, the article shows that starting from the works of John Duns Scotus being is understood as a natural phenomenon, which means a fundamental separation of ontology from theology. In sum, ontology is something external to theology. Kant makes the first step towards the complete elimination of ontology from the theological discourse, but only M. Heidegger made the final step in this direction. Based on his philosophy and, in particular, his understanding of metaphysics as onto-theology, which prevents access to the divine, J.-L. Marion develops the phenomenology of givenness, justifying his own theological project, presented in «God without being». Nevertheless, the philosophy of J.-L. Marion is a new version of ontological relativism, which raises the question of whether the project is suitable for theology.
Keywords: history of ontology, post-metaphysical theology, onto-theology, being, God, givenness, J.-L. Marion, phenomenology
Peter Ehlen. Expression, Word and Revelation in the Philosophy of Semen L. Frank
In his philosophical works S.L. Frank was able to integrate the personalistic phenomenology of the 20th century into the ontological thinking of Christian Platonism. At the same time such concepts as “expression”, “word” and “revelation” became the key to his ontology. In this article, the importance of these concepts for Frank’s thought is demonstrated on the basis of his religious philosophy (“The unknowable”, 1939) and anthropology (“Reality and Mankind”, 1949). The sources that used the Russian philosopher in his work, as well as the harmony of his thoughts to ones of other authors are not the subject of this study. Despite the fact that the S.L. Frank does not mention directly the disputes about Imiaslavie that took place in the Russian Orthodoxy on the eve of the First World War, his reflections on the word and the revelation, as well as his evaluative statements are related to the question actively debated at that date: in which sense God or Jesus Christ are present in their Name.
Keywords: Russian religious philosophy, the philosophy of S.L. Frank, God Madness, revelation, expression, word, Imiaslavie disputes
Frits Gåvertsson. Philosophy of History in the Analytic Tradition
The aim of the article is, according to the author, to present history of philosophy (and philosophy of history) in terms of the British analytical tradition. Rejection of metahistorical purpose accounts for the importance of transdisciplinary analysis in the effort to make sense of historicism; thus, inner “duality” of historiography becomes vital for combining individual and “objective” sides of research. Hence, the author’s interest in such topics as the hermeneutic “fusion of horizons”, Nietzsche-Weberian perspectivism and the latest interpretations of both (by Q. Skinner, A. Ayer, R. Koselleck, R. Rorty et al.). These and other methodological means have the purport of making room for multiple approaches, which reveal both the creative potential of the analytical tradition and its problematic sides.
Keywords: philosophy of history, analytical philosophy, history of philosophy, political theory, hermeneutics, historiophobia, perspectivism, rhetorical turn, evolutionism
Alina Pertseva. Historicism and Subjectiv(iz)ation: from Foucault to Rancière and backwards
The article makes an attempt to trace the link between, on the one hand, historicism in the approach, and, on the other, its capacity to theorize a «positive» aspect of subjectiv(iz)ation, conceived as resistant in contrast with subjection. With this object in mind, we refer to two authors concerned with both topics, who are rather close to each other but at the same time sufficiently independent to be able to assure a variability of approaches to these topics – to Michel Foucault and to Jacques Rancière. Given that each of them provide us with different kinds of reflection on these topics on the different stages of their œuvre, as a result, we obtain three sharp transitions: from the politics of Foucault to the politics of Rancière, from the politics of Rancière to his aestetics, from the aesthetics of Rancière to the aesthetics of Foucault. The contrast between them rather persuasively demonstrates the existence of a negative correlation between the historicism and the topic of subjectiv(iz)ations-as-resistance, even in the works of such authors as Foucault and Rancière.
Keywords: historicism, history, universality, transhistoricism, subjectivation, subjectivization, resistance, emancipation, Michel Foucault, Jacques Rancière
Irina Blauberg. Evolution of Personalistic Ideas in the Work of N.O. Lossky
The article discusses the formation and development of the concept of hierarchical personalism in the work of N.O. Lossky. The author examines the philosopher’s master thesis “The Fundamental Doctrines of Psychology from the Point of View of Voluntarism”, and then shows that many of the ideas formulated in this work later formed the basis of his personalism. Theoretical justification of this doctrine was given in his book “The World as an Organic Whole”. And Lossky’s late works consider the ethical-axiological context of personality and its freedom, the different forms of communication and interaction between individuals, as well as the idea of unity and interpenetration of individual and universal being.
Keywords: personalism, personality, organicism, freedom, substantial actor, Nicolai Lossky
Albina Bulatova. N.А. Berdyaev’s Concept of Person’s Supreme Value in Context of Personalism in France in the First Half of the 20th Сentury
The paper examines the intellectual heritage of a remarkable Russian philosopher Nicholas Berdyaev’s (1874–1948), known as personalist according to his religious metaphysics, who dwelled on the concept of God-Man and humane society. His communitarian personalism, developed in texts of emigration period, had profound influence on the philosophical search of French intellectuals, existential thinkers and catholic modernists. The article reveals religious-philosophical sources of Berdyaev’s and his European associates’ thought, their fruitful discussions and interaction. The author tries to reconstruct the philosophical context of this period. One of the major aims is showing the ways of philosophical dialogue between Berdyaev, as the most recognized Russian thinker in the West, and the catholic philosophers-personalists. The article also considers ontological distinguishing features of Berdyaev’s personalism and its social projections.
Keywords: metaphysical personalism, existentialism, spiritual universalism, Christian eschatology, neo-thomism, religious creative act, freedom
Ksenia Vorozhikhina. Existential in Russian Thought (on V.P. Vizgin's “Faces and Subjects of Russian Thought”. Moscow, 2016. 360 p.)
Victor Vizgin’s book “Persons and Subjects of Russian Thought” concerns the ideas and thinkers of so called “Golden and Silver Age of Russian culture”, as well as the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. The article traces the development and relationship between the two basic trends of Russian philosophy, highlighted by the author, namely existential (accentuating the subjective-personal origin of the thought) and platonistic (relegating to objectivism, rationalism and ontologism) trends. The concept of “resonance”, which is used by Vizgin to describe the philosophical kinship and similarities of ideas under discussion, is analyzed in the paper. It also deals with Victor Vizgin’s understanding of the nature of existential thinking, and some peculiar characteristics of Russian philosophy, e.g. its strong affinity with literature.
Keywords: Russian philosophy, V.P. Vizgin, existential philosophy, resonance, G. Marcel, L. Shestov, Platonism, the philosophy of unitotality, P.A. Florensky