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of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  History of Philosophy. 2017, Vol. 22, No. 2
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History of Philosophy. 2017, Vol. 22, No. 2




Victor Molchanov. Differences and Tautologies. Problems and Terms in Kant’s Transcendentalism

In this paper I raise a question of the structural and empirical origins of transcendentalism. The difference between the Kantian and Husserlian understanding of the tasks of philosophy as well as the relation of terms and problems in historical and philosophical research is considered. The passage from the first edition of the Critique of Pure Reason concerning the difference between rainbow and rain in empirical and transcendental dimensions is analyzed in detail. The ambiguity of Kant’s basic concepts, the tautological and contradictory nature of his arguments are revealed. The translations into Russian of the main Kant’s terms are analyzed.

Keywords: I. Kant, transcendentalism, tautology, philosophy, thing in itself, experience, appearance, object

DOI: 10.21146/2074-5869-2017-22-2-5-19



Mikhail Vedeshkin. “After my nurture in childhood, my path took me through the discourses of Plato and Aristotle”: Aristotle and the Peripatetic Tradition in the curriculum of Julian the Apostate

The present article examines the sources of Emperor Flavius Claudius Julian’s knowledge of peripatetic philosophy and the legacy of Aristotle, through analysis of philosophical interests of his tutors and mentors as well as their influence on the personal development of the future Apostate.

Keywords: Julian the Apostate, Aristotle, Peripatetics, Late Antiquity, education in Late Antiquity

DOI: 10.21146/2074-5869-2017-22-2-20-28


Ludmila Kryshtop. Christian Thomasius on Religion and Morality: The Beginning of the Enlightenment in Germany

Christian Thomasius (1655–1728), one of the best known thinkers of his times, has initiated the change in the style of German philosophizing from the scholastical to a more life oriented one, and is therefore traditionally regarded as the father of German Enlightenment. Thomasius’ interest for the questions, the answers to which can be of importance not only for the closed circle of academic specialists but also for each human being, can be traced in all his main writings, which chiefly belong to the sphere of practical philosophy. The foundation of Thomasius’ philosophical views is his doctrine of “rational love”, developed, as he saw it, in line with the teaching of the New Testament that one should love one’s neighbor more than oneself. This love is an ideal a human being can approach only with God’s help, as his own nature is inherently corrupt. Thus moral philosophy in Thomasius is preparing a human being for the attainment of higher truth through revelation. Here we see a typical early-Enlightenment contradiction between seeking to praise human reason and acknowledging its obedience to truths revealed by God.

Keywords: Thomasius, Enlightenment, moral, religion, virtue, God, revelation, reason, faith

DOI: 10.21146/2074-5869-2017-22-2-29-43


Viktor Vizgin. Existential Motives in Maine de Biran’s “Diary”

The vast “Diary” of Maine de Biran (1766–1824), founder of the French spiritualist tradition, holds the central place in his works. Heterogeneous layers of notes focus on the single conceptual whole in the existential metaphysical question of the “bearing point” in the stream of change. This question, deeply felt by the “Diary”’s author not only as a theoretical problem, but also as a personal, spiritually important question, serves as a motive and “spring” of his philosophical search. The article pay special attention to the “resonance” of de Biran with the stoics and Pascal, who raised basically the same question, although in another context. The author also finds parallel moments in Maine de Biran and Gabriel Marcel as heir to the tradition he founded. As shown in the article, on the axis of this question together with the subsequent attempts to solve it forms an existential “melody” characteristic for Biranian thought. The author concludes that the “Diary” of the founder of the French spiritualism may be characterized as the diary of an existential philosopher avant la lettre. 

Keywords: Maine de Biran, French spiritualism, existential philosophy, philosophy and wisdom, philosophy and religion

DOI: 10.21146/2074-5869-2017-22-2-44-55


Darya Loungina. The Adolph Peter Adler Case and the Limits of Religious Communication in Kierkegaard

The events which took place between 1842 and 1846 with of Adolph Peter Adler gave rise to further elaboration of Kierkegaard’s theory of communication. This was the subject of unpublished “Book on Adler” and the article “On the Difference Between the Genius and the Apostle” (1849), which accumulated the message of the book. Kierkegaard not only reviewed the difference between direct and indirect communication which he applied before 1846. The case of Adler set Kierkegaard thinking otherwise, in the direction of the principle difference between speaking with and without authority. Has religious speech a special status in view of transcendent status Christianity? What is the subject of religious communication in that case and its difference from aesthetic, philosophical and scientific ones? After 1846 Kierkegaard introduced the new communicator into his religious writings. This “marionette” served the purpose to show how to share the inward, to disclose the secret of Revelation to people. Thus the difference between the genius and the apostle became important for the late Kierkegaard.

Keywords: limits of speech, religious communication, authority and without authority, inwardness, subjectivity, the Revelation, Christianity in the 19th century

DOI: 10.21146/2074-5869-2017-22-2-56-69


Roman Lopatjuk. Hegel’s Criticism of the Concept of Force in Newton’s Celestial Mechanics

This article examines the problem of Hegel’s criticism of Newton’s system of celestial bodies. Modern works on this topic proceed from the fact that the basis of Hegel’s criticism of Newton’s celestial mechanics based on Hegel’s rejection of the concept of force. In accordance with this interpretation Hegel has some kind of holism in relation to natural phenomena. The phenomena of the natural world should not be subjected to analysis or experiment, because such procedures violate their original natural entirety. With regard to celestial mechanics this means a prohibition on the use of the concept of force, with which Newton analyzes the orbital motion of bodies. In this article the author argues with this understanding of Hegel and puts forward an alternative interpretation, according to which Hegel’s criticism of Newton’s doctrine is due not to a prohibition on analysis, but to a prohibition on the synthesis of two forces, namely, inertial force and gravitational force, since they have a completely different nature according to Hegel. This thesis is confirmed by the fundamental principles of the philosophy of German thinker.

Keywords: G.W.F. Hegel, I. Newton, celestial mechanics, philosophy of nature, inertia, initial shove, necessity, accident, gravity

DOI: 10.21146/2074-5869-2017-22-2-70-78


Édouard Girard. Historical Dialectics and Exteriority: Two Elements of Lenin’s Teaching

To read Leninism as a doctrinal corpus presents a test for our philosophical sensibility. This challenge to our reading is not, however, caused by the theory itself; quite to the contrary, it is the result of an overabundance of considerations which are external to it: the political history of the Soviet Union, Lenin’s biography stretched as far as psychological analysis, all so many parasites of thought that distort our understanding of the text. The spirit of philosophy is refused to the Leninist corpus, because Lenin is seen as having sinned against philosophy itself. We are incapable of stepping outside of either the “orthodox” reading of Leninism or its “anti-totalitarian” counter-reading. Caught in this vice, commentators must operate under the yoke of a moralism dictating that a side must be chosen: for or against Leninism, to be decided prior to any cursory reading. Faced with this impasse, it seems necessary to return to the roots of this impossible exegesis. How can Lenin’s doctrine be brought back into the fold of our philosophical sensibility? How can the prickly issue of Leninism’s inherent, subjective morality be correctly handled? How can this subjective morality be connected to a teleological conception of History? Which heuristic is still open to us in deepening our understanding of the great revolutionary’s thought? Attempting to answer these questions is the goal of the present paper.

Keywords: dialectics, history, morality, German idealism, revolutionary, socialism, heuristics

DOI: 10.21146/2074-5869-2017-22-2-79-97


Lev Titlin. Is the “Self” an Object? A Discussion of the Buddhists with the Pudgalavādins in “Pudgalaviniścaya” of Vasubandhu (Preface to the Publication)

The article forestalls the first Sanskrit-Russian translation of excerpts 928-932 from “Pudgalavinishchaya” of Vasubandhu with the commentary “Sphutartha” of Yashomitra. The translation is preceded by the reconstruction of the text and a summary of the Pudgalavadins’ teachings. “Pudgalavinishchaya” or “The Study [on the Issue of the Existence] of the Self” is a supplement to “Abhidharmakosha-bhasya” or “Encyclopedia of [canonical Buddhist philosophy]” of Vasubandhu (IV-V AD). “Pudgalavinishchaya” is one of the most important polemical writings on the existence and properties of the self, which reflected the discussions on the subject between the “orthodox” Buddhists on the one hand and Buddhists-“heretics” (Pudgalavadins), Nyaya- Vaisheshikas, philosophers-grammarians and Sankhyaikas on the other hand. The excerpt discusses the question of whether the subject (pudgala) is an object and whether it can be comprehended by any of the six “consciousnesses”. Vasubandhu proves that it can not, from which follows that it does not exist.

Keywords: Vasubandhu, Pudgalavinishchaya, Yashomitra, self, non-self, atman, anatman, subject, pudgala, Pudgalavadins, Pugdalavada

DOI: 10.21146/2074-5869-2017-22-2-98-106


Vasubandhu. “Pudgalavinishchaya” with the Commentary “Sphutartha” of Yashomitra (excerpts 928–932)

DOI: 10.21146/2074-5869-2017-22-2-107-114



Olga Kusenko. Reception of Eurasian Ideas in Italy

This is a review of the recent monograph by Dario Citati, an Italian historian of Russian philosophy and political thought. His work is dedicated to the detailed reconstruction of Lev Gumilev’s intellectual heritage, major aspects of classical Eurasian doctrine and its modern interpretations. The appearance of Citati’s book is a significant event for Italian historiography of Russian philosophy. First, it provides a systematic study of Gumilev’s main ideas, problems and methodological issues. Second, it allows to overcome and redefine the stereotypes around Eurasianism in Western studies. As a result, Citati’s work offers a solid background for the dialogue between Russian and Italian historians of Russian philosophy.

Keywords: classical Eurasian doctrine, L. Gumilev, Neo-Eurasianism, Italian historiography, Russian philosophy, Russian studies, Russian philosophy abroad, geopolitic, D. Citati

DOI: 10.21146/2074-5869-2017-22-2-115-123


Alexander Tsygankov. Epistolary Biography of S.L. Frank. Review of «Semen Frank. The Strokes to the Portrait of a Philosopher» by T. Obolevich (Moscow: Biblical Theological Institute, 2017)

The proposed review considers the monograph “Semen Frank. The strokes to the portrait of philosopher” by a modern Polish researcher Teresa Obolevich, published in 2017 by the Biblical Theological Institute, and analyzes the author’s understanding of S.L. Frank’s creative development. The review presents and gives a general characteristic of Obolevich’s comparative analysis of two approaches to the «unknowable» developed by S.L. Frank and A.F. Losev respectively, and highlights a number of possible themes related to the life and creative path of S.L. Frank, which receive new coverage due to the use of materials from the Bakhmetevsky archive of Columbia University, previously not being introduced into scientific circulation. In conclusion, the attention is also drawn to a number of shortcomings in the monograph.

Keywords: epistolary biography of S.L. Frank, archival heritage of S.L. Frank, the life and creative path of S.L. Frank, Bakhmetiev Archives, Russian Religious Philosophy

DOI: 10.21146/2074-5869-2017-22-2-124-132

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