2017, Vol. 3, No. 2.
Vladislav Alexandrovich Lectorsky noted his 85-year anniversary by the report at the methodological seminar of Institute . He dedicated his analysis to the domestic philosophy of the 20-ies of the last century. The brilliant constellation of thinkers, tragic fates and unsolved mysteries. Things which caused the disengagement and passion are largely forgotten. Different time comes. Different views of the world, of person reign now. Sometimes pride impels to look arrogantly at not so distant past. But, according to the authoritative opinion of Vladislav Alexandrovich, we have much more reasons for wonder and admiration of called decades. What a striking and comprehensive rise of humanitarian thought! What a variety of insights in the time of imposed ideological unanimity! What impeccable assortment of traditions, not losing their appeal and value!
Keywords: philosophy, tradition, sociology, science, humanitarian thought, idea, creativity, existential, immanent, transcendent
The article discusses the philosophical-anthropological aspects of the concepts of play and game that have become widely used in philosophy, game theory, moral theory. This concept was employed by ancient philosophers (stoics, Plato) and authors of modern theories (Huizinga, Bern). The notion of play is viewed as a metaphor and compared to specific games. Metaphorically, play pervades all areas of human life, personal relationships, professional activities, artistic creation. In this connection, the problem of delimiting play and life arises.
The choice of the subject in the article on the philosophy of Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev (1874–1948), especially on his “philosophy of tragedy”, must inevitably address a number of related topics, such as philosophical and religious revival in Russia, freedom of will, personality, self-transcendence, coercion and necessity; philosophical currents: Slavophilism, Westernism; certain names: A.S. Khomyakov, V.S. Solovyev, F.M. Dostoevsky; national character, fate of Russia; certain categories: spirituality, tri-unity as the beginning, integrity, principle of antinomic monodualism, fragmentation of consciousness, relativism, and so on.
The analysis of the present, past and future allowed Berdyaev to bring together the categories of historical time, to connect them with eternity and to develop a view on the inseparable integrity of being. You cannot return to the too temporary and perishable in the past, but it is possible and necessary to revive what in the past, now forgotten, was eternal. The thought of inner rebirth, of the overcoming and transformation of something and of oneself plays an important role in the dynamic worldview of Berdyaev. In fact, the problem is not to stand back from suffering or dutifully endure misfortunes and reconcile with the terrors of earthly existence, but to overcome them in oneself and to rise above them inwardly.
Keywords: Slavophilism, Westernism, A.S. Khomyakov, V.S. Solovyev, тF.M. Dostoevsky, Russia, free will, tri-unity, antinomic monodualism
The object of the study is the historical process of spatial emancipation of women, Ukrainian women in particular. This process is understood as the widening of the socio-spatial context of women’s existence throughout their relocation from the private to public spheres as an imperative of industrialization and is seen as aimed at the achievement by women of spatial freedom and the right to autonomous geographic mobility in the second half of the 19-th – early 20-th centuries.
On the grounds of the data of two stages of spatial emancipation of women, singled out in the author’s earlier works, the paper analyses socio-historical paradoxes and gendered traps resultant from this process. They consist in the transformation of socio-cultural benefits provided by female spatial emancipation at the first stage of this process, into the burden of excessive obligations, dependencies and limitations of post-soviet Ukrainian migrant women. Thus, the research showed that at the first stage of spatial emancipation, i.e. in the second half of the 19-th – early 20-th centuries, a great significance for Ukrainian womanhood had academic migration to West-European Universities, which triggered the modernization of women’s spatial practices. In turn, this process facilitated the transformations of bodily and physical image of females as well as gendered evolution of their self-identity. As a result, a figure of a «new woman» has emerged, the one who rejected «home as a woman’s place». Yet, the realities of the capitalist stage of human development have transformed the acquisition by women of the freedom of movement in the public sphere from a decided benefit into new forms of dependencies: exploitation and over-exploitation at the working place, inequality in the remuneration for work, women’s «double burden» and even «triple burden» for rural women, with respective negative effects on their health, devaluation of «women’s work», constraints in making career and in joggling work and family life, feminization of poverty and homelessness, etc. That is, spatial emancipation of women became, for one, the tool for the maximum widening of their existential space, which today became global in scope, but for the other, it turned into a gendered trap for women insofar as it transformed into a tool of their exploitation and multidimensional discrimination, thus reinventing itself from a blessing into a burden, from emancipation into «pseudo emancipation».
The paper identifies the following paradoxes of the historical process of spatial emancipation of Ukrainian women: 1) triple loss as a way to «triple win»; 2) «home» as work and work as «home»; 3) social exclusion in the heart of a foreign family; 4) growth of social status as a result of downshifting; 5) paradoxes of «globalization of motherhood»; 6) strengthening of one myth as a result of contesting the other; 7) negative gender saldo of migration for women; 8) double burden instead of gender egality; 9) pressures of spatial freedom as a way to hijab. As a conclusion, the author contends that the causality behind the gendered paradoxes and traps of female spatial emancipation lies in the nature of capitalism which regards a human being not as an individual and a personality in his/her own right, who performs sacral and metaphysical functions, but as no more than a tool of enrichment and of achieving selfish interests by the exploitative class of capitalists.
Keywords: society, gender, women’s spatial emancipation, migration, self-identity, gender trap, emancipation, mobility, private space, social status, values
The conception, suggested to the author by Velimir Khlebnikov, consider the Great Revolution as “equality of worlds” and “unity of people and things”. These comparisons of genius are described by V. Khlebnikov as the “common denominator”. The revolutionary events rose to their tops: the election of the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church and of members of the legislature. National communicative revolution, which for decades was prepared by the struggle for the liberation of Russia from the “mute” state, includes the four phases of the revolution, which make up a whole – a national revolution. Its actuality is the subject of the proposed study.
The article is devoted to the historical and philosophical reconstruction of the conception of the free and universal Theocracy by Vladimir Solovyov. Ideological roots of this concept in the work of Solovyov are disclosed; main stages of its theoretical development are illuminated; the cultural and historical context and the primary reception of the Theocracy as the key idea in Solovyov’s system in the period of 1880s are shown. In this period, which has started with the number of publications in “Rus” newspaper (1881–1882) and finished with the publication of his main work “Russia and the Universal Church” (Paris, 1889), the idea of the union of Orthodox and Catholic churches was the main condition of the idea of the free Theocracy. The history of writing and publication of unfinished Solovyov’s work “The History and the Future of Theocracy” is examined. The attempt of the textual reconstruction of the author’s thought was made. This attempt is caused by the fact that none of the three published editions of this work (separate chapters in the magazine “Orthodox Review”, Zagreb’s edition and posthumous edition in the Collected works under the editorship of Ėrnest Radlov and Sergey Solovyov) can be considered as a true and full author’s thought. The development of this theme by Solovyov is considered in the context of thinker’s ideological evolution, which resulted in his disappointment in the utopian ideal of Theocracy, reflected in works “On the Decline of the Medieval World Outlook” (1891) and “War, Progress, and the End of History: Three Conversations” (1900). The question of the meaning of Soloviev’s theocratic project in which the thinker tried to find a way of resolution of current problems of his time by appealing to Medieval religious and political conceptions is raised.
Keywords: theocracy, Vladimir Solovyov, pan-unity, ecumenism, church, orthodoxy, catholicism, slavophils, history, utopia
The article for the first time provides an integral-analytical overview of Arthur Schopenhauer’s doctrine about genius, where the basic ideas are as follows. First, the genius is a quite exorbitant and real redundancy of intellect, which does not require for itself and its services the blind will, which rules the world. At the same time a man of genius grasps the general principles of being, becoming able to know essence of things, what is beyond the capacities of any ordinary or even talented people. Second, contemplative and therefore more objective and holistic knowledge of the world is the essence of genius, which allows him to see the worlds, inaccessible to perception and understanding of other people. Thirdly, the subject of genius’s knowledge are problems that reflect the “essence of things in general, only that, they have in common, the whole” and, on the contrary, all other people easily pass by those problems, which a genius just can’t miss. Fourth, people of genius, because of their ability to contemplative world cognition, which differs from the knowledge implemented in the form of concepts, which provide only vapid abstractions, are able to comprehend the reality of the “Platonic ideas.” Ingenious people least care about their own benefit, on the contrary, their efforts are focused not on personal gain, but on creation of universal human values, that ultimately form the spiritual culture of the humanity.
Keywords: Arthur Schopenhauer, philosophical anthropology, genius, intelligence, contemplative knowing, talent, madness, maturity, childishness, creativity
This paper studies the controversy between Franz Brentano and his student Carl Stumpf regarding emotions and sense-feelings. The issue is whether the pleasure provided by an object such as a work of art is intentional, as in Brentano’s theory, in which it is closely related to the class of emotions (love and hate), or merely phenomenal, as Stumpf would have it.
The main theme of the article is the phenomenon of fantasy from the perspective of anthropological thought. The author sees fantasy as one of the most important and multi-faceted anthropological phenomena. Fantasy is involved in all the spheres of human life. Weaving into strict scientific thought, it significantly enriches the knowledge. It has powerful compensatory function, allowing you to embody many unfulfilled desires in dreams. Fantasy can have hedonistic nature, it can cause aesthetic pleasure, as evidenced by art.
Keywords: fantasy, C.G. Jung, reality, inner world, anthropology, human being, being, the collective unconscious, fantasy, dream
The article is devoted to the study of human existence in the aspect of its converted and alienated forms. Both of them are different from the original form, which is present actually or potentially. The converted form is not completely overcome, but exists only as an overcoming one. By ceasing to be denied by a man, it becomes the alienated form. The converted form belittles the authenticity, but does not obscure it entirely. The alienated form, on the contrary, is able to obscure, neutralize the authenticity. The true human existence is manifested as a non-impassive life together, at least of two people with each other. Sociality is a converted form of life together, excessively rationalized and mechanized. Recognized as a substance of reasonable egoism, it is permeated by the capitalist spirit, which is not eliminated by socialist practice. Rationalistic and mechanistic reductionism is immanently inherent in sociality. Determined by it, it evolves towards alienated forms of life, turns into excessive sociality. The latter is not assimilated by the human individual: it corrodes his nature and existence, subordinates his sociality to economic and technical structures. In conjunction with sociality and its internal logic, the author critically assesses the progressist worldview. Progress is a converted form of development, which tends to alienate and destroy even faster than sociality. The modern world is in a state of innovative decadence. It is no longer just a parasitism on the future, characteristic of classical progressist theories and practices; it is a transfer into the present of the exhausted exploitation of the future. Humankind experiences this state in a strange form of sublime fall. To discuss the stated subject, the author draws on philosophical and literary material and meaningful life empiricism. The pathos of the article is in a realistic and responsible recognition of the continuity of being and in the feasible resistance to its inauthentic forms.
Keywords: human being, converted form, alienated form, life together, sociality, excessive sociality, reasonable egoism, innovative decadence, sublime fall, existence
The article analyzes the character of an economic man represented in the work of the German philosopher and pedagogue Eduard Spranger. The author of the article tries to identify this type of a man through his dominant value system. Whom can we regard as an economic man? Probably someone involved in economic processes. No, such a definition is not enough. We all are more or less involved in the economy. But there are people who seem designed for such activities. Such people are few. Not all may be successful in business matters. Thus, economic man is a character, a certain set of traits, represented as a kind of unity.
Thus, the economic man in the most general sense is one who in every relation of life puts the value of utility in the first place. Everything turns to him into the means of preservation of life, the means of the natural struggle for existence and a nice arrangement of life. He is frugal in his use of substance, of power, of space, of time in order to extract the maximum of beneficial effects. We, the people of modern times, maybe, would call him the practical person, because the whole area of technology is similarly subordinated to economic criteria (as we will see below). But his value is not the depths of mentality that make decisions about the values, but completely external beneficial effects. The Greeks, therefore, would call him albeit “doing” (poiounta) but not “acting” (prattonta). The famous German philosopher, psychologist and educator Eduard Spranger tried to create a gallery of social characters. As a basic framework which allowed him to make a distinction between social types, Spranger took a spiritual setting that underlined a way of life. In the activities of a particular person prevails, as a rule, one of these settings. Highlighting the core values, which focus on the human behaviour and ultimately determine it, Spranger did not realize that in each of these areas there are people with the opposite mental qualities and characteristics. His principle in the article is characterized as rather abstract.
According to E. Spranger, the economic man is guided by the principle of “useful and enjoyable”. This distinguishes him from the theoretical person for whom it is important to distinguish “true or false”. Can spirituality be measured economically? The German researcher points to the spiritual meaning of labour. He notes that the economic man is found in two forms – as a producer and as consumer. More boldly the economic process is presented in person, which is engaged in the production in any direction to be able to consume in this or that direction. It clearly manifests a balance between the benefits and the losses of utility. The German scholar makes a distinction between production and consumption. But in economic life, another demarcation is possible. It belongs to Aristotle. He distinguished the economy and the chrematistics. The economy aimed at the satisfaction of needs and the chrematistics – at the profit.
Keywords: people, personality, character, typology, psyche, spirit, life, behaviour, mind, passions
The article clarifies the relationship between necessity and chance in history, it is viewed through the views of prominent French enlighteners – the materialists Holbach, Helvétius and Diderot. Holbach was one of the first in the 18th century who identified necessity and causality by attributing randomness to phenomena which causes we do not know. In his opinion, everything in the world is rigidly and unambiguous defined; if we know the cause of the present event, then we can think that it will be the cause of the next and so on. There is not a single particle of matter, not a single person that would not be where they should be and they should act exactly as they act, for this had been determined by the preceding series of causes. Holbach’s views had outstripped the findings of P. Laplace, who described the alleged Demon, who knew absolutely everything in the past and the future.
Keywords: necessity, accident, reason, chain, connection, dialectics, education, way of thinking, phenomenon, reasoning, dialogue
Did Hegel really say in his lectures in Berlin that art has completed its development, that it was a matter of the past and would not be the object of our interest in the future anymore? Or are we dealing with a kind of misreading of Hegel’s aesthetics? Hegel’s aesthetics and so-called the “end-of-art” thesis are of great interest among the researchers of Hegel’s works, as well as among contemporary artists. The fact that nowadays art sometimes pushes the viewer to the questions about the role of art in the contemporary world and distinction art from non-art, drives up this interest. The ambiguous development of artistic forms and the appearance of new types of artistic activity lead us to look for new criteria to determine what exactly may be called a work of art now. Nevertheless, the question of whether Hegel spoke about the “end” of art or he was misunderstood by the researchers, remains open. Taking into account the development of contemporary art, this issue is now of key importance.
Keywords: philosophy, G.W.F. Hegel, art. “end-of-art” thesis, aesthetics, spirit, absolute idea, religion, man
From the inexhaustible flow of books, we have selected a few publications, which, in our opinion, are of undeniable value. First of all our attention attracted publishing projects of Svetlana Yakovlevna Levit. In this case, we selected the books devoted to history. From the legacy of Aron Yakovlevich Gurevich articles from two collections was taken: “History is a Never-ending Dispute” and “Medieval and Scandinavian Studies”. Works of famous medievalist A.J. Gurevich are published not for the first time. The author analyzes the book by A.M. Shishkov on the history of the intellectual culture of the middle Ages “On the Shoulders of Giants. Essays on the Intellectual Culture of the Western middle Ages (XIII–XIV centuries)”.
Keywords: history, Middle Ages, culture, religion, mentality, medieval studies, courtly love, religion, culture of laughter, eschatology
Serious philosophical literature issues the publishing house “Kanon+”. Selection for publication is often unexpected. This applies, for example, to the “Notebooks of L.S. Vygotsky” or original in many ways “Emotional plague of mankind” by W. Reich. The records that L.S. Vygotsky kept for himself are multifarious: notes on memory, unexpected thoughts, and polemical remarks. Undoubted achievement of the publishers is the publication of classic work of Reich, which may be called a kind of social utopia, destined to crush the emotional plague of humankind.
Keywords: psychoanalysis, psychology, hedonism, sexuality, culture, person, artifact, design, context, age
The monograph “Expulsion of God. Problem of Sacred in the Philosophy of Man” by N. Rostova  covers a wide range of philosophical problems. In ancient civilizations the Sacred embraced all levels of life, from rites and cults to politics, housekeeping and everyday life. It is because the ancient people had a significant big soul – universal and immense World-Soul – honored it, tried to live life in ontological wakefulness and intense perception of existence. The Sacred looked at the ancient man from all sides – by starry eyes of night sky, by the waters of creeks and springs, by herbs and trees, beasts and birds, other people, objects of cult and everyday life (“an angel of ordinary human affairs” of N. Kluev). The Sacred inspired a terror and delight, awe and tenderness, carried a man away in multidimensional worlds of intense interior life, with bends and precipices, with rising and falling. The Sacred never was univocal, it was not measured by the scale “good-bad”, “pleasant-unpleasant”, “profitable-unprofitable”; it is obviously beyond the opposites: movement to Paradise exposes the Hell, interest in the Hell makes you think of Paradise.
Keywords: philosophical anthropology, man, culture, the Sacred, God, “death of God”, “human death”, fear, victim, desacralization
Irving Singer (1925–2015), a former professor of philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, author of more than twenty scientific books. “Philosophy of love” is not his first book devoted to the study of various aspects of love.
Keywords: love, Agape, Eros, courtly love, romantic love, “appeasement”, fusion, dualism, pluralism, creativity