Institute of Philosophy
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  2018, Vol. 4, No. 1
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2018, Vol. 4, No. 1


Philosophical anthropology

2018, Vol. 4, No. 1.





Pavel Gurevich. Philosophical Examination of Ideology

The work of the institute seminar was a significant event in the life of the Institute of philosopher RAS last year. The scientific life in the sectors took various forms. Discussions are held, reports of experts, specialists from other institutes and departments are discussed. However, the significance of the general institute seminar is different. The most acute issues of modern philosophy are discussed, the states of affairs in a specific area of philosophical knowledge are analyzed, the expert assessments are given, the results of various theoretical activities are summarized.

This valuable initiative is related to the activities of the scientific adviser of the Institute of Philosophy, RAS, well-known scientist, academician Abdusalam A. Guseynov and the Director of the Institute, academician Andrei Vadimovich Smirnov. During the year, they made a lot of efforts to ensure the high level of discussion on topical issues of philosophical knowledge. Every meeting opens with an introductory speech of A.A. Guseynov, which gives a detailed description of the scientific activity of each speaker. This is followed by a report that is discussed by the seminar participants. Thus crystallized valuable theoretical material, which in turn provides an impetus for the formulation and solution of new problems. Undoubtedly, this form of activity allows the Institute to perform complex tasks assigned to it at the present stage.

This year, the problems of ideology were of particular interest at the seminar. Ideology was considered not only as a special social and anthropological phenomenon. Its varieties and features at different stages of history were traced. Presentations were made by distinguished experts of our Institute: V.M. Mezhuev, E.Y. Soloviev, V.A. Podoroga, A.V. Rubtsov. The reports showed that the Institute conducted a serious theoretical work related to different areas of philosophical knowledge. It also became obvious that researchers are interested in acute issues of social life, they are ready for a comprehensive discussion of the huge scale of the ideological experience of past eras and modernity. As a result of the exchange of opinions and controversy different aspects of this phenomenon revealed: the genesis of ideology, its inherent social functions, its attitude to science, various forms of its existence, the value nature of ideology, its latent (“shadow”) forms.

Ideas about the localization of ideology along with politics, science, culture, economy were supplemented by a diffuse model of “included ideology”. The degradation of ideology and the danger of geopolitical myths, ethnic intolerance and revived historicist speculations, etc., were discussed.

The actualized historical and philosophical material had a special value. It was connected not only with the XVIII century, when later educators turned the doctrine of ideas into a moral and political doctrine, emphasizing the active nature and the practical importance of ideology. Due attention was paid to the concept of Marx and Engels, who criticized the ideology as false, illusory consciousness and illustrated the understanding of history in the German classical philosophy of the first half of the XVIII century – the first half of the XIX century.

Keywords: ideology, reality, utopia, culture, revolution, philosophy, conservatism, liberalism, socialism, Marxism

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-8-26





Roman Paleev. Aristotle on the Selective Happiness

Happiness is such a common and seemingly clear word. However, as a philosophical concept, it is endowed with numerous meanings and contradictions. Aristotle also pointed to these difficulties. Of course, happiness is a feeling of ultimate pleasure from achieving the goal, a special state of the soul, when harmony, luck and divine instruction characterize the world and fate. However, people understand happiness in different ways. Examples from different cultures illustrate it particularly well. Thales in his time made fun of people who saw happiness in achieving wealth. Most often, the state of happiness is associated with hedonism, specifically with obtaining certain life benefits. The creation by Aristotle of eudemonism as an integral felicitary doctrine, hierarchized in relation to the benefits, laid the systemic foundation to the science of happiness. In antiquity the main opposing felicitary doctrines were born – hedonism and stoicism, the latest in its extended version is proposed to name non-ontologism. Christianity transcends Aristotelian eudemonism, abandoning its hedonistic motives. However, Hedonism of the XVIII century acts under the name of eudemonism, making imbalance in the understanding of Kant’s deontological ethics directed against such eudemonism, which in fact is hedonism. The Russian philosophy with its origins in the Orthodox Church, does not relate its doctrines directly to the happiness, but contains the basic felicitary ideas.

The need for happiness is quite natural, as the desire for it. However, this idea is quite disputable. For example, N. Berdyaev noted that the word “happiness” is the most meaningless of all human words. There is no criterion and measure of happiness. There can be no comparison between the happiness of one person and the happiness of another. It is also not true that man is always and mainly a being who loves himself. Man is a being who torments himself and others and experiences pleasure from this torment. A person does not seek happiness. Such a desire would be pointless and meaningless. A man seeks substantive benefits and values, which can give him happiness and bliss, but happiness and bliss itself cannot be a conscious goal. Aristotle interprets eudemony as active completeness of life, which corresponds to the completeness of virtue; and it is obvious that virtue is rather something integral, then a genus containing species.

The author shows that the very understanding of happiness in Aristotle does not have integrity. There are questions that require clarification of what exactly the ancient thinker had in mind.

Of course, many philosophers did not ignore this problem. Each of them sought to find a formula for integral comprehension of happiness. Aristotle explores the different facets of this problem. Nevertheless, he is convinced that happiness is extremely selective. Ascetic, for example, ignores the benefits of life, but sees the highest pleasure in the spiritual states. Nevertheless, Aristotle’s approach to this problem tends to prioritize the benefits of life. He notes that eudemonia is possible only under certain material conditions, in modern language, a level of life must be sufficient to live in material well-being.

Thus, the systematic studies of happiness show that the greatest disorientation is observed in the value understanding of happiness, which includes the subject of happiness, determines its types, parameterizes the result of happiness and manifests itself in its functions. If in the category of ideal happiness antagonism is expressed in the construction of axiology of values, then in the category of real happiness it manifests itself in the conflict of felicitary types.

The Aristotelian understanding of happiness as the ultimate goal correlates with other principles of the essence in its highest manifestation. In the system of categories, ideal happiness is an absolute concept, and real happiness is a comparative concept and, accordingly, is subject to quantification in the modeling. Within the philosophical-anthropological paradigm, happiness acts as a cultural concept. The etymological archetype of happiness comes to the first conflict in history – the division of farmers and hunters, which gave rise to a doublet understanding of happiness: as the fruit of labor and as hunting trophy.

Keywords: happiness, felicitology, eudemonism, virtue, ethics, good, passion, prudence, depravity, activity

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-27-45 





Ilshat Nasyrov. Post-Islam or Cultural Islam?

The paper seeks to sketch cultural Islam as a possible ground for rethinking of traditional anthropological perspective in Islam. Muslims, like any other religious group, face contemporary challenges like secularism. Peoples of the Muslim countries are primarily concerned with social rather than religious issues. The question then arises, can secularism in the Islamic East be compared to so-called “post-Christianity” of the West, “death of religion”, or tendency that reject all forms of religious faith and worships? Whether the secular processes in Muslim societies could be described as “post-Islam”?

There are two ways to define the term secularism. According to “positive secularism”, man does not need God. Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906–1945), a German pastor and theologian, held that there is a new era in Christianity and believed that, through scientific knowledge and de-mystification, the world moves toward disbelieving in God as hypothesis to explain the meaning of reality. He called it “the coming of age of humanity”. According to another approach, advanced by Gianni Vattimo, an Italian philosopher and politician, secularization is a natural step in the evolution of Christianity in post-metaphysics and post-mega-narratives situations. From this point of view, secularism is a further step of Christianity adapted to the modern society. Gianni Vattimo considers that secularism help to differentiate the West from other cultural regions around world.

Far from ignoring scriptures and religious doctrines, the author places an emphasis on the main religious ideas and conceptions, operative in Islamic communities, as situated in space and time. The thesis of the “created” Quran advanced by the Mu’tazilites, early Islamic theologians, and other important events in the history of Islam provides some support for the conceptual premise that Muslim societies and the West develop and progress the same way.

All human societies – without exception – undergo social change all the time. This doesn’t mean that we have to treat secularism as atheism. Secularism, in my view, is separation between religion and state. In many countries, for example, in Russia, the Muslims are the bearers of a secular culture and education, and no one will be able to bring them back to the Middle Ages. In other words, many Muslims accept Islam as tradition, as part of national culture, as a historical form of existence of moral standards of their people.

This proves that in fact the Muslim world is consistently moving in the direction of secularism and the secular society. Today their main task is to preserve cultural and national identity and join Western nations in social and economic competition. All this suggest that political Islam can only grow weaker as time passes, while cultural Islam is equipped to meet contemporary challenges.

Cultural Islam in my definition rests on two postulates. The first is an adherence to the principles of justice and reason. The early Islamic rationalist theologians, the Mu‘tazilites, identified God with omnipresent regularity, harmony, justice and reason. The second postulate of cultural Islam is the categorical imperative of doing good in the light of saying of Prophet Muhammad: “ Love for the people what you love for yourself ” . Relying on these two postulates allows representatives of the Islamic world to perceive the problems of the world, problems of democracy, human rights and women’s rights, as their own problems.

This study has shown that secularization in the Islamic world leads to the establishment of cultural Islam. The deepest crisis of religious worldview doesn’t automatically entail a break with Islam, the world’s largest religion after Christianity, and doesn’t destroy its continuality.

Keywords: religion, Islam, secularization, secular space, rationalism, cultural identity, globalization, Post-Islam, cultural Islam, world view

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-46-54 





Maxim Monin. “Time and Narrative” of Paul Ricoeur  and the Russian Humanitarian Tradition

In the text, which is a fragment of the book “The Apology of Culture. Three Reading of Paul Ricoeur” the author compares Ricoeur’s poetics with poetics of Bakhtin, mainly from the standpoint of relation between Ricoeur’s theory of “three mimesis” and Bakhtin’s concept of the “chronotope”. By the opinion of the majority of researchers who consider this problem, the concept of the chronotope, which combines the spatial and temporal organization of a literary work, in the methodological sense, is richer than the concept of mimesis, which deals almost exclusively with the temporal aspect – both of the literary work and the reality itself. Ricoeur believes that the emphasis on” polyphony”, polyphony of voices in the works of Bakhtin, which stems from the predominant attention to the spatial organization of a literary work, can destroy it as an integrity of the plot and to turn the story, which, according to Ricoeur, ultimately is any literary work, in a picture, where everything happens “simultaneously”. Moreover, Bakhtin’s key concept of “dialogue” is in the nearest accordance with the key concept of “event” in the whole philosophy of the narrative of Ricoeur, playing the role of the key moment of the narrative, “transforming” the characters and changing the course of action, i.e. making up the essence of the plot intrigue, in Ricoeur’s interpretation. In addition, the poetics of Bakhtin and Ricoeur are united by the importance attached by both authors to a dialogue of a different kind: between the author and the reader (Ricoeur and Bakhtin devote a significant place to this dialogue in their works). But all these similarities only emphasize significant differences in the interpretation of the literary work by Bakhtin and Ricoeur, which allow us to speak not so much about the comparison, but about the complementarity of both poetics.

Keywords: projective poetics, mimesis, chronotope, dialogue, exotopy, narrative, transgrediency, author, promise, novel of education

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-55-80





Sergey Konyaev. Ontological Aspects of Human Imagination

Article is devoted to the recently published Suetin`s article «Reality of Fantasy». The author does not agree with the basic thesis of Suetin that the imagination is the special substantial form of a reality. Unlike Suetin, the author believes that the imagination is a property of high-organized thinking and cannot be considered on an equal basis with the reason, mind and morals. Moreover, not every consciousness possesses property of «constructive imagination», i. e. possibility of generation of new information, which resists to the growth of entropy and, thus, provides stability of our world.

To show complexity of a problem of interaction of reality and imagination, the review of ontological concepts of modern physics in a context of a problem of the physical reality, raised by Albert Einstein and actively discussed now by philosophers and methodologists of science. The article discusses the basic question of «non-objectivity» of objects of physical theories, which appeared with introduction of corpuscular-wave dualism in the context of quantum theory. It transformed today in a conclusion that the quantum object in a sense does not exist before the process of its observation.

The modern ideas of Everette-Willer about possibility of existence of the plural Universes and participation of the observer in process of formation of an observable reality are discussed.

The evolution of the concept of the information is considered from Brilluen`s ideas to the works of Ralf Landauer and Boris Kadomtsev. The conclusion is made that the matter today is inseparable from the information and, probably, it is necessary to pass from understanding of a matter as an energy, that was valid for 20-th century (just as for 19-th century the identification of matter with substance was relevant), to information understanding of matter.

The author also reviews ideas of Michael Mensky who expanded concept of Everett. Mensky considered the world surrounding us as quantum super-position of set of the worlds, while a choice of the concrete classical world in which we live and operate is defined (is made) by our consciousness.

The author marks the big importance of the analysis of a phenomenon of imagination and heuristics of Suetin’s approaches, however believes, that for understanding of this phenomenon the new approaches, distinct from traditional division of the world on matter and consciousness, are required. The important theoretical contribution to the development of physical theory could be an elaboration of the notion of border of biological system.

The text of article discusses some steps to formation of this concept. Other perspective approach could be the computer metaphor of the person, which is generalisation of ideas of Howard Patti about «semantic closure» of dynamic and linguistic descriptions of biological system.

In particular, even the description of boundary of a human body demands sending to the Other (to the «external» observer) as the boundaries of a body of the person appear connected with metrological maintenance of the observer.

Keywords: imagination, consciousness, thinking, counterfactual thinking, a physical reality, ontology of the physical theory, boundary of biological system, boundary of the observer in the physical theory, semantic closure, the possible worlds

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-81-101 





Elizaveta Antonova. Poetic Language of Philosophy

The artistic image is a special form of reflection of reality, different from the concept. These two words can be considered as two models of cognition. Science fixes the results of its activities in terms of concept. It is through them that science selects certain objects from a certain subject area and collects them into the class to indicate their common and distinctive feature. Thus, science provides the rigor of the theoretical search. The concept is one of the main forms of reflection of the reality of the world on the rational, logical stage of knowledge. As for the image, its features are different. First of all, it is a product of imagination. In that way in philosophy and aesthetics is called the ability to create, hold and reproduce the image of the object in the absence of the object itself as an individual, unique phenomenon or process. Traditionally, there is a “division of labour” between concept and image. The concept serves science, the image is the privilege of art. In philosophy, the image is considered as a universal category of artistic creativity. The image is an element or part of an artistic creation that usually has its own life. Art is unthinkable without an image.

In the article it is emphasized that the concept and the image, despite the difference of essence and functions are sometimes drawn to each other. To convey a thought more accurately, philosophers often search for a metaphor, for a symbol to express a theoretical thought more accurately. Thus, a scientist sometimes resorts to poetry to emphasize those aspects of his work that need a metaphorical language.

The author draws attention to the current trend, which is expressed in the fact that the convergence of philosophy and poetic language becomes obvious. And the appeal to poetry is particularly clearly found among those philosophers who seem to be least in need of poetic interventions. This applies, for example, to M. Heidegger. The article notes a certain evolution in the work of this philosopher. To express the subtle shades of thought, the shimmering meaning of a concept without poetic imagery is impossible. Moreover, according to Heidegger and Husserl, the rationality of philosophy often emasculates thought, makes it abstract, deprives of brightness and attractiveness. That is why big thinkers began to look for new resources in poetry to enrich the language of philosophy. M. Heidegger began a deep study of German poets, finding in their insights unconditional harmony with his own thoughts and poetic search. Of course, we are not talking about how to decorate the philosophical reflection by a bright image, a symbolic analogue. The treatment of the language suggests its deeper comprehension. Heidegger, for example, deliberately refuses all the scientific. He follows W. Humboldt, who sought to find the ground in the language. That is why W. Humboldt showed a special interest in the roots and basics of natural language. Appreciating this tradition, Heidegger looks for the origins of life in the root foundations of language. So in the characterized searches there was also a renewal of philosophy. In particular, ontology has become a teaching about the being.

The article analyzes specific examples that allow to penetrate through the language into the essence of a problem. The language itself has undergone a certain transformation. If a few centuries ago it was interpreted only as a pragmatically useful system of communication, in the last century this approach was replaced by a transcendent-hermeneutic one. The evaluation of the poetic language has also changed. It increasingly became seen as a proto-language, inextricably associated with being and truth.

Keywords: being, real, image, thinking, reflection, life world, language, poetry, homelessness, hiddenness

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-102-118 





Concept of the Philosophical Electronic Encyclopedia “World Philosophy: Basic Concepts and Systems»


Victor Bychkov. Taste

The essay is a brief study of aesthetic taste. It shows that this notion appears in 17th-century aesthetics, is vigorously developed in the process of numerous 18th-century discussions in various European countries (France, England, Russia, Germany, etc.) and becomes part of aesthetic theory as one of its principal categories. The essay demonstrates that the category of taste denotes a particular innate ability to become a subject of aesthetic experience – namely, an ability to perceive and/or create aesthetically, to act and experience aesthetically – that every human being possesses to a certain extent. In aesthetically gifted persons taste develops to a high degree practically from birth, and as a rule they often choose the path of creators of art. However, the majority of humans are born with a mere potential to develop taste over a longer period of time. Their taste can be developed to a rather high level as a result of aesthetic (artistic) education, first of all by using examples of true art as well as natural phenomena.

Keywords: taste, aesthetics, aesthetic categories, aesthetic experience, art, artistic quality, the beautiful, perception, aesthetic contemplation, education of taste

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-122-139


Alexander Stoliarov. Gaius Musonius Rufus

This article is devoted to Gaius Musonius Rufus – a Roman Stoic author of the 1st century AD. Like many other representatives of the Later Stoa, Musonius paid little attention to the theoretical side of the Stoic doctrine, concentrating mostly on practical ethics, namely, the so-called paraenetic, or moralistic discourse, parting from the positive assumption that a human being is born with a proclivity for virtuous life and a capacity of goodness. A paradigmatic Roman intellectual, Musonius contributed to shaping that idea of a dignified way of life which dominated European moral consciousness ever since; his own example gave proof of his adherence to the principles he believed to be true.

Keywords: Gaius Musonius Rufus, Roman history, Stoic philosophy, Later Stoa, practical ethics, ascesis, Seneca, Hierocles, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-140-153


Konstantin Arshin. Nationalism

The article presents an attempt to analyze the concept of nationalism, based on the identification of its most important features. The author describes the main social innovations that served as the basis for the formation of nationalism, social preconditions and ideas used by intellectuals to form mass nationalist movements. At the same time, a systematic analysis of the main trends in the study of nationalism is presented – primordialism and modernism.

Keywords: nationalism, nation, intellectual, sovereignty, people, national self-determination, primordialism, modernism, civil nationalism, ethnonationalism

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-154-174


Alexander Pavlov. Patriotism. Very brief history of the idea

The article reveals the concept of patriotism and suggests a very brief history of its idea. First, we consider what was meant by patriotism in Antiquity, Ancient Rome (what terms were used to indicate love for fatherland), in the late Middle Ages, in the Renaissance, in the New Ages and up to the French Revolution. The typology of “patriotism” (tribal, local, national, state, class, corporate patriotism) is given, as well as a comparative analysis of patriotism and nationalism, their distinctive characteristics are named in the article. In particular, it is argued that patriotism is a much older phenomenon than nationalism. The article describes how prominent social and political thinkers talked about patriotism – the Stoics, Cicero, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Rousseau, and the American Founding Fathers, in particular Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln. Particular attention is paid to Russian thinkers, whose focus was patriotism. Thus, we are talking about Tolstoy, who considered patriotism a “religion of slaves” and opposed it to true Christianity. Other Russian philosophers were more careful in their statements, distinguishing true and false, useful and harmful patriotism (Berdyaev, Ilyin, Florovsky, and N.S. Trubetskoy, Ustryalov). In addition, the article briefly examines how Lenin and Stalin understood patriotism in a “class sense”.

Keywords: patriotism, social philosophy, political theory, history of ideas, Marxism, fatherland, homeland, nationalism, American credo, the state

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-175-191


Nadezhda Mankovskaya. Postmodernism in aesthetics

The essay features an analysis of one of the principal aspects of postmodernism: aesthetic. It defines postmodernism as a particular area in the artistic-aesthetic culture of the last third of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, whose main trait is pervasive irony towards both the classical tradition and contemporary explorations in the areas of art practices and aesthetic theory. Postmodernism’s most characteristic traits are arbitrary mixing of cultural codes and texts of all times and nations based on the principles of deconstruction and schizoanalysis, as well as parodying play with all cultural meanings. The essay demonstrates that postmodernism internally undermines traditional views of wholeness, harmony, and completeness of aesthetic systems, their norms and criteria. Postmodernism’s main principle is asystematicity and eclecticism. It distances itself from classic Western European (ancient, Winckelmannian, Hegelian-Kantian) aesthetics; however, without clashing with it, postmodernism attempts to pull it into its own orbit using a new theoretical foundation, which features a pluralistic aesthetic paradigm that leads to a loosening and internal transformation of the categorial system and conceptual apparatus of classic aesthetics. The essay analyzes all major principles of organization of artistic text in light of postmodernism as an artistic-aesthetic phenomenon: deconstruction, intertextuality, simulation, schizoanalysis, rhizomatics, irony. It shows that a postmodern modification of aesthetic experience is realized in the principal artistic media: architecture, painting, cinema, literature, theater, music, etc. It pays special attention to postmodern tendencies In Russian culture.

Keywords: postmodernism, aesthetics, art, deconstruction, intertextuality, simulation, rhizomatics, schizoanalysis, irony, play

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-192-230


Igor Dzhokhadze. Pragmatism

American pragmatism has undergone numerous transformations through 150 years of its history. Founded by Ch. S. Pierce in the 1870s, it gained recognition as a philosophical movement only three decades later due to W. James and J. Dewey. During 1930–40s pragmatism was gradually replaced on the American scene by logical empiricism and linguistic philosophy, “exported” from Europe. Among academic philosophers, Deweyan and Jamesian pragmatism was viewed as excessively “tender-minded” – fuzzy, unsystematic, without a firm theoretical core and methodology. Some champions of pragmatic approach tried to popularize the ideas of paleopragmatists by simplifying them for mass consumption. Such efforts did little to bolster the prestige of the tradition among American intellectuals, and even worse, vastly spoiled its image and reputation. Under these circumstances appeared M. White’s book “Toward Reunion in Philosophy” (1956) with a sharp criticism of “epistemological formalism” and an outline of a new philosophical synthesis of positivism and ethically oriented pragmatism. This program was partly realized in the doctrines of W. Quine and W. Sellars. Along with the ideas of Pierce, rediscovered in the mid-20th century, Quine’s and Sellars’s philosophy became one of the sources of contemporary neo-pragmatism (R. Rorty, H. Putnam, R. Brandom, etc.). Many scholars associate the perspectives of American philosophy in foreseeable future with pragmatism in its various incarnations and combinations with other philosophical approaches.

Keywords: pragmatism, The Metaphysical Club, Peirce’s maxim, fallibilism, doubt, belief, radical empiricism, truth, problematic situation, inferentialism

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-231-243


Grigory Kanarsh. Justice

The article is devoted to the analysis of the category of justice – central to social and political philosophy and ethics. The genesis of this category in the history of political thought is studied, and the basic modern concepts of justice are considered. At present there is a wide discourse of justice in relation to various problems of social and political life in the world – such concepts as intercultural, global and environmental justice come to the fore. Nevertheless, the basis of modern discussions are approaches to understanding justice, which genetically date back to the two basic traditions, ancient (antique-medieval) and new European. The first relates justice to the concept of good, the second – to the concept of law. The article investigates importance of this category in the philosophy of the greatest thinkers of Antiquity and Modern times. It studies the key concepts of justice in modern political philosophy (both legal and teleological). From the point of view of the author, the most satisfactory answer about the modern content of the concept of “justice” is given by the functionalist conceptions of the human good (A. Sen, M. Nussbaum).

Keywords: justice, law, good, discourse of justice, political values, liberalism, communitarianism, perfectionism, social justice, global justice

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-244-262  





Pavel Gurevich. And the shadows listen motionless… (review of collective work “Symbolism – New Perspectives”)

Perhaps, the peer-reviewed collective work «Symbolism – New Perspectives” edited by I.E. Svetlov [7], has no analogues In Russian literature. It not only reconstructs the history of the painting of the symbolists in many, sometimes unexpected, angles. In this respect, it is unconditionally encyclopedic. Not only national schools and trends are analyzed. An impressive application is made to recreate the universal picture of the symbolic universe. The major experts, unique professionals involved in the creation of the book. The authors sought to avoid the narrow professionalism. They showed creativity of the largest masters of painting in close connection with history, philosophy, psychology. A unique panorama of European symbolic art is being reconstructed. At the beginning of the last century, K. Jaspers noted that compared to previous historical epochs, our time is extremely poor in symbols. In quantity, the symbols appear only in dreams, fantasies in reality, as well as in psychopathic states. Time has made significant adjustments to the reasoning of the famous philosopher. The symbol broke out into the cultural space and obtained a unique expression. Even psychopathic visions have acquired artistic value. The creative activity of the symbolists has received deep recognition.

Man at all times lived in symbols. They are the dominant reality of man. Since such existence in symbols belongs to the fundamental structures of human life, there is a desire to grasp symbols in all their originality, in their accumulation, analysis, comparative study. We can no longer approach to the symbols as alien, exotic forms, which, although not available to our understanding until the end, allow us to see in them the unique world of symbolic truth. In this case, we have at our disposal a vast world of constantly moving images, which represented the truth of the prototypes. Therefore, we must search for the basic elements – these unchanging, eternal elements of human awareness of reality. As a result, the systematics of symbols does not appear in the form of a classification of amazing, strange or for some reason worthy of special attention fantasies, but in the form of a fundamental scheme or plan that reflects the universal truth. The development of possible symbolic content means the opening of a space within which a person can become himself; on the other hand, being deprived of symbols, it can freeze in the void. Contemplating the subjective visual images embodied in art, we cannot be surprised at the sight of emerging from nothing figures, landscapes, people. Without revealing clear connections and seeing only random clusters of sometimes unconscious fragments, we are talking about random configurations. But the need for meaningful understanding is constantly pushing us to search for patterns or relationships.

Keywords: symbolism, symbolism, fantasy, virtual, art, image, person, mythopoetics, nature, beauty

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-263-277  





IV scientific videoconference «Man as a natural, social, existential creature: “sore spots” of philosophical anthropology»

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2018-4-1-278-287





In memoriam of Vera Samohvalova