Institute of Philosophy
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  2019, Vol. 5, No. 1
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2019, Vol. 5, No. 1


Philosophical anthropology

2019, Vol. 5, No. 1.





Pavel Gurevich, Elvira Spirova. Science in the Apophatic Horizon.

The word “apophaticism” has a long tradition. It expresses a cognitive principle that allows us to approach the study of the processes of nature through negation. Supporters of apophaticism believe that any theoretical discovery should not be regarded as exhaustive. It should rather be interpreted as a sign of the hidden, as an indication of the possible depth of new problems. The principle of negation in this case serves as a warning against a simple initial interpretation of the topic. This is how Dionysius the Areopagite understood this word. He argued that there are two ways of knowing God: the first way is through positive definitions of God (“Almighty”, “Omnipresent”, “Good”), the second way is through the denial of all predicates as inaccurate or false. From the apophatic point of view, to get the true image of God it is necessary discard all the answers that claim to know God. As a result, thinkers get an answer to the question “What God is not?” In this way emerges the true image of God. Born in theology, apophaticism penetrated into philosophy and science. It reflected on the interpretation of the Universe, on the idea of the true image of man. Modern researchers call the apophatic knowledge the main method of the science of the XXI century. In postmodernism apophatic method is becoming increasingly popular as a reaction to the apparent failure of claims to absolute knowledge.

Keywords: cataphatic, apophaticism, science, theology, negation of negation, idols of consciousness, apophatic project of man, quantum theory, evolution, human transformation

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2019-5-1-6-25


Sergei Smirnov, Ekaterina Yablokova. Anthropological Boundaries of Humanitarian Expertise.

The article examines the phenomenon of humanitarian expertise in the context of the anthropological turn, that was carried out the philosophy of science and practice and taking into account the formation of nonclassical norms in epistemology and the philosophy of science. In general, authors understand the anthropological turn as a shift from the essential paradigm to the event and energy paradigm, within which a person acts not as an object of description and construction, but as an event, due to which, in one way or another, the norm and the boundaries of a person are revised. Humanitarian expertise in this regard is seen as a practice and an institution that re-poses the question of the norm and the boundaries of a person that have been seriously problematized in connection with the introduction of convergent technologies into the practice. In the article four types of boundaries are considered in detail: life and death, natural and artificial man, man and animal life, man and God. When analyzing the border phenomenon, the authors use the concept of a frontier, since the frontier as a floating border concept is already introduced into science.

Keywords: anthropological turn, humanitarian expertise, human norm, human borders, posthuman, identity, frontier, non-classical scientific paradigm, anthropological square, convergent technologies

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2019-5-1-26-44



Tatyana Selina, Alexander Shtanko. Anthropic body of national legal tradition and communicative practices.

National legal tradition (customary law) is a unitary system of relationships of living, past and unborn generations, called by Ya.V. Chesnov generic body of culture, or a unitary embryonic chain. It is the difference between the anthropic potential of man and of all mankind as a whole that keeps this continuous (permanent) connection between generations at the level of man's existential-personal experiment on himself (M. Mamardashvili). This is what we would call today the Word-Logos of Real, and Ya.V. Chesnov believed it is the basis of the vital ontology of society. The society is alive while there are existing and developing communicative practice of designing clean anthropic environments of new institutions, going back to the origins of anthropoculture with its rites of passage and initiations (project “Be House of Ya.V. Chesnov in Obninsk”). These anthropic institutions of self-determination and self-distribution organize the system of succession of generations, reproduced in anthropic culture. By means of anthropophenomenalistics has performed the reconstruction of the origins of the formation of the national legal system – the anthropic body of national legal culture and its ways of organizing communicative practices of withdrawal of conflict situations, which is of great practical importance for the current situation of instability in the context of the growth of the global crisis, of threatening to go into a humanitarian and of anthropological catastrophe.

Keywords: National legal system, anthropic body, anthropic potential, a permanent connection of generations, communication practices, design, clean anthropic environment, institutions, the origins of anthropic culture, means of anthropophenomenalistics

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2019-5-1-45-61



Igor Chindin. Mythopoetry of V. Ivanov & Creativity of the Myth of D. Andreyev.

In article creativity of the one of leaders of the Russian symbolism V. Ivanov is considered through a neomythologism prism. An attempt is made to analyze the features of  a mythopoetics of the poet-philosopher; to distinction between “mythopoetics” and a “formation of myths”. The review of poet’s views on creativity of the myth before and during his emigration is given. A number of aspects of mythical perception of the world comes to light, on the basis of which the distinction between a symbolist neomythologism and a mythical narration of antiquity is made. The law “ideal-material unity” is considered as the most important installation of mythical knowledge of the world. The specification of the term “myth” in the context of esthetic and philosophical concepts of the Russian romantic-symbolical school is offered. On the basis of selected aspects of mythical perception of the world “myth” of Ivanov is compared to “myth” of D. Andreyev. The preliminary conclusion is made about high quality deepening in mythical perception of the world, which is found in Andreyevs creativity, in comparison with poetry of the Russian symbolists, in particular, Ivanov. In Andreyevs creativity the fact of creation of the latest mythical chronotope – Rose of the World, is elicited, and also the fact of transition from language of “abstract” philosophical concepts on language of “concrete” mythical entities. In these facts the author of article sees implementation of the law of “ideal-material unity” of a mythical thinking, and also precept both of the Russian symbolism and V. Solovyov to find the integrity of knowledge.

Keywords: Russian symbolism, myth, neomythologism, mythopoetics, formation of myths, mythical thinking, mystical realism, Russian idea, logomyth, myth par excellenceof myths,mythical thinking, mystical realism, Russian idea, logomyth, myth par excellence

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2019-5-1-62-80


Andrey Maidansky. Education and Nature: Lessons from the Zagorsk Experiment.

The Zagorsk experiment on the formation of personality in deaf-blind children is considered in the context of confrontation between the naturalistic psychology and the cultural-historical one. From the point of view of the naturalistic psychology, the essence of man is concealed in his genome, and all the diversity of human abilities comes down to a set of genetic “norms of reaction” to external stimuli. And the cultural-historical theory understands the essence of man as “ensemble of social relations” (Marx). The founder of cultural-historical psychology L.S. Vygotsky argued that experimental work with deaf-blind children makes it possible to uncover the regularities of educaton of any ordinary child, just as the artificial synthesis of chemicals in the laboratory allows us to understand the processes of forming them in nature. In the course of the Zagorsk experiment, E.V. Ilyenkov tried to discern the moment of birth of human personality within “natural” psyche: the personality is born in the process of communication, mediated by cultural objects. Ilyenkov regarded the inability of a deaf-blind child to search-orienting activity in the surrounding world as complete absence (“zero”) of psyche. He compared the formation and development of personality with the flow of the river: this process is 100%, from the beginning to the end, determined by the “relief” of culture, and not by the chemical composition of water. The central part in the theory of interiorization, or “enrooting” (Vygotsky’s term) of the human person inside the natural psyche, is assigned to jointly-divided activity – first of all, to “practical communication” (A.I. Meshcheryakov) of educator and child. Its purpose is to form in child the need for cultural behaviour and the ability of autonomous acting with cultural objects.

Keywords: human, deaf-blindness, Zagorsk boarding school, cultural-historical psychology, Evald Ilyenkov, Alexander Meshcheryakov, psyche, search and orienting reflex, culture, personality

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2019-5-1-81-101


Vladimir Milkov. Hilarion.

The article describes religious and philosophical views of an outstanding Russian thinker and church-political figure Hilarion of Kiev (late X – early XI century – ca. 1054/1055). We analyze his historiosophical work “Sermon on Law and Grace” and show that it consists of three independent parts and constitutes a kind of collection of Hilarion’s texts. In a deeply emotional, figurative and poetic form the ancient Russian thinker gives a theoretical understanding of world and national history. Hilarion highlights the most important stages of the world history, developed according to the divine scenario and argues that the progress of humanity is carried out by introducing more and more peoples into Grace (Christianity). He justifies the idea of equality of all nations and asserts the right of the “young” Slavic people “to be new wineskin for old wine”. In spite of the arrogance of the Greeks, Hilarion glorifies the greatness of his country and the ancestors of Vladimir the Baptist. In the glorification of the present through the past is clearly traced the national idea. The program of independence of the Russian church from the Patriarchate of Constantinople was put in religious form. Hilarion ideologically justified his country’s right to church autonomy.

Keywords: Russian philosophy, Ancient Rus, Hilarion of Kiev, historiosophy, ideology of ancient Russian autocephaly, Church, Christianity, Law, Grace, World history

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2019-5-1-102-121

Daria Lungina. Kierkegaard.

Kierkegaard Soren Aabye is a Danish religious author, preacher and philosopher, forerunner of existentialism and the inspirer of religious modernism. Kierkegaard’s ideas are discussed in the biographical sequence starting with a journals and notebooks of his early years (1838‒1840) and his master thesis “On the Concept of Irony” (1841). The second period (between “Either/Or”, 1843 and “Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments”, 1846) is represented mostly by his works published under pseudonyms and governed by the principle of “indirect communication”. In the analysis of the texts of third period, which began after the conflict with the journal “Corsair” (1846), emphasis is placed on the reflections of Kierkegaard about his author strategy and the possibility of direct expression of Christian truths. Some sections are devoted to Kierkegaard’s final months (1854‒1855) and his posthumous reception from the 1860s to the present. Religious and philosophical aspects of Kierkegaard’s thought are covered in the context of the crisis of speculative systems of the mid-nineteenth century. A requirement for modern interpretation of Christian dogmas together with repeated attempts to implement Hegelianism in politics, theology and ethics are considered as polemical background for Kierkegaard’s reflection on God and man.

Keywords: Kierkegaard, crisis of rationality, crisis of Christendom, existence, indirect communication, forerunner of existentialism, religious modernism, God, absurd, despair

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2019-5-1-122-158

Alexandra Berdnikova. Nesmelov Victor.

The article is devoted to the holistic reconstruction of life and career of the Kazan spiritual and academic thinker Victor Nesmelov (1863‒1937). The main prerequisites and theoretical sources of formation of Nesmelov’s original anthropological system are shown: Russian religious and philosophical thought (Veniamin Snegiryov), Western philosophy (Immanuel Kant, Ludwig Feuerbach, English empiricism), patristic heritage (Gregory of Nyssa). The main ideas of the major works of Nesmelov are analyzed: “Dogmatic system of St. Gregory of Nyssa” (1887), “The problem of knowledge. Experience in the study of natural principles and forms of philosophical knowledge” (1888), “The Question of the Meaning of Life in the Teaching of the New Testament Revelation” (1895), “Science of Man” in 2 vols. (vol. 1‒1898; vol. 2‒1903); “Faith and knowledge in terms of epistemology” (1913). Three main sections of Nesmelov’s teaching are covered: epistemology, anthropology, and philosophical theology. Influence of Nesmelov’s ideas on his followers in the Kazan Theological Academy (M.N. Ershov, I.I. Satrapinsky, N.V. Petrov) and on other Russian spiritual-academic and secular thinkers (N.A. Berdyaev, Anthony (Khrapovitsky)) is demonstrated.

Keywords: Victor Nesmelov, Kazan Theological Academy, spiritual and academic philosophy, Veniamin Snegirev, Gregory of Nyssa, religious experience, Christianity, English empiricism, proofs of the existence of God, religious anthropology, salvation, theodicy

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2019-5-1-159-174

Irena Vdovina. Personalism in France.

The article discusses the ideas of French personalism as one of the most important trends in the philosophical anthropology of the twentieth century. Its representatives – Catholic thinkers E. Mounier, J. Lacroix, M. Nedoncelle, and others – pursued the task of reformulating the problems of the Christian concept of man and creating a philosophical doctrine of personality as the main concern of human civilization. Comprehending the humanistic tradition in the history of philosophy, originating from Socrates, Aristotle, Augustine, personalists put forward as central problems of their thinking existential and spiritual aspects of human activity, problems of personal communication and creative elaboration. In this regard, creativity and art were recognized as a climax of human activity, of intersubjective communication and productive imagination leading to a radical transformation of earthly life, where the person and his spiritual values will become a priority. Under the influence of the ideas of personalism, personalistically oriented conceptions were formed in Italy, Switzerland, Scandinavia, Latin America; they became the theoretical basis of various trends in social theology and stimulated reorientation of the official doctrine of modern Catholicism. The further development of the personalist theory of man was undertaken by P. Ricoeur, who relied on the latest researches in the fields of human activity, language, narration, ethics, and political philosophy.

Keywords: personalism personality, humanism, involvement, self-realization of a person, spiritual world, transcendence, reciprocity, ethics, art

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2019-5-1-175-188

Irina Sizemskaya . Personalistic vision of the world – modus of Russian philosophical thought.

The article discusses the features of Russian philosophical thought associated with its orientation to the interpretation of the world in the unity of its conceptual and figurative perception, to a method of philosophizing that is realized as a function of the mind, which not only understands, but experiences and feels, filling the intellectual process with “living objectivity”. Referring in this connection to the concept of Kireevsky “living knowing”. The author shows that this method of philosophizing was also a protest against the adoption of rationalism as a universal form of attitude to the world, defending the idea of “unity” of human cognitive capabilities through the existential inclusion in the cognitive process. This opened the way to the direction that brings philosophical reflection closer to the personalistic vision of the world with its attention to the individual as the highest value and creativity as the spiritual foundation of being. The article shows that a consistent implementation of this vision of the world received in the philosophical constructs of S.L. Frank, L.I. Shestov, N.O. Lossky, in the works of representatives of the literary and artistic movement of the early XX century, and the development in the form of a special philosophical trend in philosophy N.A. Berdyaev, who characterized his framework as religious existentialism and personalism. Referring to the philosophical heritage of Berdyaev, the author of the article includes in her analysis the philosopher’s interpretation of the idea of free personality and creativity (the kingdom of Spirit), the idea of objectification (the kingdom of Caesar) and the idea of eschatologism (earthly history and the superhistorical). The author shows that the basis of all philosophical constructions of the philosopher was that neither man nor opposed to him being in their separate existence represent the basis of entity, for such is the person “rooted” in it. According to the author, Berdyaev, more fully and comprehensively, of all other domestic philosophers expressed in his philosophical searching and constructions the meanings and content of personalism as a philosophical trend.

Keywords: Russian philosophy, personality, creativity, personalism, “living knowledge”, hilosophical anthropology, anthropodicy, the kingdom of Spirit, freedom, the kingdom of Caesar, objectification, the meaning of history, eschatology

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2019-5-1-189-206

Elena Dragalina-Chernaya. Smirnova Elena Dmitrievna.

This paper traces the scientific evolution of Elena Dmitrievna Smirnova, the founder of the national school of logical semantics. It is addressed the most significant Smirnova’s results in the development of model-theoretical methods, the theory of semantical categories, and intentional logic. The originality of her synthesis approach to logical semantics, which opens new perspectives in the foundations of apodictic knowledge, is argued for. The paper shows the role of Smirnova’s scientific and pedagogical activity in the development of philosophical logic in Russia.

Keywords: Elena Dmitrievna Smirnova, logical semantics, philosophical logic, theory of models, theory of semantical categories, intensional logic, analytic truth, paradox, Russian school of logical semantics

DOI: 10.21146/2414-3715-2019-5-1-207-218