TABLE OF CONTENTS
IN SEARCH OF A NEW LANGUAGE FOR PHILOSOPHY
G.V. Vdovina. Bernard Lonergan: method in theology and the humanities
This article examines the conception of method in theology as developed by Canadian philosopher and theologian Bernard Lonergan. In the first part, the author discusses the background of Lonergan's methodological theory, such as the style of thinking in which he had his formation as a philosopher and methodologist, Lonergan's own later reflection on this style as well as his ideas regarding the problem of cultural meanings. The latter part of the paper concerns the problem.
Keywords: method, theology, intentionality of consciousness, humanities, meaning, culture
Yvon Bres. Attachment (eros and agape)
This paper deals with the notion of attachment which, according to the author, deserves a more prominent role in contemporary philosophical, psychological and theological traditions than it actually plays. To confirm this thesis, the various aspects of the said concept are brought under consideration, among which those related to animal psychology, child psychology, psychoanalysis in general and Freudianism in particular, Platonic thinking, Christian theology and Japanese culture.
Keywords: love, Plato, attachment, psychology, psychoanalysis, Freud, Christianity, Eros, Japanese culture
HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY
A.A. Stolyarov. Posidonian physics: novelty or Stoic canon? (On the issue whether Posidonius really was a ‘Stoic Platonist’)
For a fairly long time Posidonius was regarded by historians of ancient philosophy as a somewhat mysterious figure, fashionable to deal with. He used to be considered a forerunner of that 'great synthesis' which prepared the rise of Neoplatonism (via Middle Platonism). A more exact examination of the basic physical texts of Posidonius, however, proves almost beyond doubt that in fact he was the most faithful Stoic and could play no role of importance in the coming 'Neoplatonic synthesis'.
Keywords: ancient philosophy, Posidonius, Middle Platonism, Neoplatonism
Bertrando Spaventa. Italian Philosophy in its relation to European philosophy
This is a Russian translation of the first and the third lectures from Spaventa's famous Introductory Course in Philosophy delivered at the University of Naples in 1861. Spaventa sets himself the goal of transcending the prejudice dominant in contemporary Italian philosophical discourse, in order to demonstrate that Italian and European speculative thought share a common character and follow the same development path. To prove his thesis, the author singles out the main propositions of Renaissance philosophy and illustrates them by expounding the ideas of the more prominent thinkers of that period.
Keywords: Spaventa, Italian philosophy, European philosophy, the Renaissance
V.P. Vizguine. Toward a renovation of the history of philosophy: some ad hoc reflections
In the present article, the author describes a situation in the history of philosophy which is characterized by the domination of what one might call the 'standard approach', i. e. the sum of immanent preferences in the mind of the scholar that reduce the main work of a historian to an analysis of properly philosophical texts and their interpretation revealing the filiation of philosophical ideas and concepts. In other words, the core of this approach is the interpretation of philosophical thought as a doctrine emanating, in accordance with some sort of intrinsic logic, from preceding doctrines. Vizguine suggests that the revival of the history of philosophy might follow the path of convergence with the history of ideas. He also refers to the history of science with its constant pursuit of renovation of methods and approaches as a possible example for the history of philosophy. The criteria of efficiency of future attempts at such a renewal may serve culture-centric orientation, existential vigour of thought and the use of creative resources in the philosophical and historical discourse and narrative.
Keywords: philosophy and history, methodology of the history of philosophy, history of ideas
HISTORY AND THEORY OF CULTURE
Nicola Russo. Nihilism of logos. The ‘truly false’ in Plato’s Sophist
Nicola Russo's paper is an analysis of the select passages from Plato's Sophist in which, according to the author, there are put and given a specific solution the key philosophical questions of ontology (relation between the existent and non-existent) and epistemology (relation between the true and the false). From these considerations Russo derives his critique of Heidegger's and Nietzsche's assessment of Plato's position. On the other hand, he demonstrates that Plato's propositions still have a fundamental importance for the formation of the agenda of the relation between ontology and nihilism that plays a central role in the ideas of either German thinker as well as in modern philosophy in general.
Keywords: Plato, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Sophist, Being and Time, dialogue, ontology, nihilism, being, thing, existence, logos
P.S. Gurevich. Some trends in contemporary philosophical antropology
The author considers historical destiny of philosophical anthropology in an age when the very character of philosophical understanding of the human condition has radically changed. He analyzes the concept of 'dividuum' as an individual cut down and observes the new tendencies that have become manifest in anthropological discourse after the significant period in thinking, dominated by the idea of the 'Death of Man', came to a close. The paper examines the phenomenon of reduced personality, with particular regard to disintegration of personality in contemporary world, postmodern philosophy serving as a substrate for the analysis of the non-human in humans. It is emphasized that the new approaches in philosophical anthropology may broaden the horizons of human existence.
Keywords: human being, personality, individual, philosophical anthropology, 'dividuum', postmodernism, non-human in humans, subject, integrity, identity
V.K. Kantor. The love for one’s Doppelganger. The alter ego as myth and reality in Russian literature
The subject of this paper is Doppelgänger as a Russian problem interpreted by Russian literature and philosophy. As a rule, the Doppelgänger is a myth created by Russian intellectuals as a means of saving of Russia. As it turns out, however, Doppelgänger possesses an immense destructive potential. Bolsheviks, though themselves an alter ego of intelligentsia, decimated it in the name of peasants and surviving workers, persuading the rest of the people that intelligentsia was their bitterest enemy. Lenin and his party proved highly successful in exploiting the myth of 'rotten intelligentsia' invented by the right-wing ideologists back in the times of monarchy. The Doppelgänger, as in a play by Shvarts, kills the scholar, from which there follow the Russian catastrophes.
Keywords: myth, reality, Doppelgänger, Russian culture, Bolshevism, intelligentsia, people, shadow
L.A. Markova. Ethics in the context of transformations of thinking in 20th century(on the concept of ‘negative ethics’)
The concept of negative act in ethics fixes the attention on the point in the activities of a human being when he or she is facing the choice between following the generally accepted moral norms and trespassing them. This is a situation of conflict between morals (general principle) and morality determined by personal decision. Negative act belongs to the same group of recent notions that took hold in the recent decades as point of bifurcation, change by mutation, revolution as a discontinuity and some others.
Keywords: morals, morality, act, good, evil, truth, ethics, science, negative act, personal responsibility, absolute character of moral norms
RECENT BOOKS ON PHILOSOPHY
M.A. Blumenkranz. Toward a history of spiritual impostures
The present article is a reply to Vladimir Kantor's book Downfall of the Idols, or Overcoming the Temptations: the Making of the Space of Philosophy in Russia. Following the framework set by Kantor, the author expounds his own reflections on the role of myth in the historical and cultural realities of the Modern age, in particular, in 20th century. He analyzes the positive and negative aspects of myth-making characteristic of the religious and ideological types of consciousness.
Keywords: religion, ideology, sacralization, secularization, mythological thinking, spiritual substitutions, rationalism, historical consciousness
N.M. Savchenkova. The art of faith
In this review of Alexandre Chernoglazov's book Lacan. An Invitation to Reality, Nina Savchenkova attempts to reconstruct the hermeneutic techniques used by Chernoglazov and to demonstrate that, for the latter author, religious and aesthetic experience is one of the most important sources from which contemporary psychoanalytic discourse is formed. At the same time, the faith in metaphors, the care of metaphors, the making of metaphors are understood as a totality of techniques and practices of subjectivation. Revendication of desire and openness of existence as revealed in the experience of faith are regarded by Chernoglazov as an ultimately real perspective for the coming-to-be of a subject in the context of contemporary culture.
Keywords: religious and aesthetic experience, desire, subject, constitutive Other, the Real, ascetic ordeal, 'choice for the worse', Eucharist host, fantasy, phantasm, enjoyment, replica
E.A. Yaichnikova. ‘Participatory art’ in the 1990s and 2000s: an attemptat a historiography and an analysis of method
This is a review of Artificial Hells: Participatory Art and the Politics of Spectatorship by Claire Bishop, British historian and contemporary art critic. Bishop's book explores the genealogy of what she calls 'participatory art' of the 1990s and 2000s, a kind of art in which the main artistic medium and the material substrate are human beings themselves. Bishop proposes to view the history of world art from theatrical perspective which she applies to the works of Western European, Latin American, Eastern European and Russian art created in the periods crucial for the making of 'participatory art', i.e., the European historical avant-garde of 1917, the neo-avantgarde of 1968 and the fall of communism in 1989. Bishop insists that 'participatory art' must be evaluated first of all from an aesthetic, not ethical, point of view; she therefore suggests to use in the analysis of its works such categories as active / passive, individual / collective authorship, participants / spectators, stressing the importance of the tension arising between these notions and the role of the politics of spectatorship involvement.
Keywords: 'the art of participation', socially involved art, aesthetics, ethics, spectatorship involvement