Philosophy of Religion: Analytic Researches, 2018, Vol. 2, No. 1.
Vladimir K. Shokhin. Is Revelation so Self-evident as it Seems? Meditating on Avery Dulles’ Typology
An innovatory typology of the paradigms of understanding Revelation offered by Cardinal Avery Dullles wherein its interpretations as (1) the body of propositions, (2) the sacred history, (3) a specific inner experience, (4) the encounter with the transcendent and (5) a new awareness are juxtaposed and compared in this paper in detail. The author of the paper differs between two approaches to theories of Revelation, those from the points of view of philosophical theology and philosophy of religion. In the first case, already sufficiently mastered, these theories are estimated mostly against the background of the Christian belief system, in the second one, presented by the author of the paper, these theories are examined according to their correspondence to the very semantics of the notion of revelation. The upshot is that the notion under discussion (revelatio) could be more coherent if some of the senses attributed to it would be transferred to adjacent notions, those disclosing along with it different modalities of communication between God and man (communio).
Keywords: analysis, interpretations, revelation, inspiration, spititual enlightenment, communication between God and man, propositions, the sacred history, the Scripture, Tradition
THE HISTORICAL PARADIGMS
Ilya S. Vevyurko. Prophetic Inspiration in the Old Testament: An Ancient Interpretation in the Light of Modern Researches
The article deals with the question on forms of prophetic inspiration in Old Testament and in the literature of the II Temple period. The terms of the prophetic phenomenon in different parts of OT canon, intertestamental scriptures and Qumran Scrolls in historical context of the social groups' development are described. The variety of prophetisms and the specificity of perception of Gods revelation in Ancient Israel are detailed. A correlation between self-understanding of prophet as receiving a revelation internally and concept of primacy of thought to the act of speaking in modern linguistics is revealed. There is also demonstrated in the article, that an opposition between “dictation” and “collaboration” (or rather “poethic inspiration”) for ancient interpretation of phenomenon of prophecy and for its biblical sources is irrelevant. This opposition seems to be a result of application of some concepts developed in interconfessional cotroversies which were conducted in the beginning of Modern Period. In the ancient times, relations between a prophet and a source of revelation were considered not as a dialogue of two parties nor as a pure mediumship, but rather as a kind of resonsnce working on the principle of Aeolian harp. This is the sence in which the Church fathers' metaphor of “musical instrument” to be understanded.
Keywords: prophet, prophecy, revelation, inspiration, Old Testament, Bible, Anсient Israel
Vladimir N. Belov. Autonomy of Reason and the Religion of Revelation in the Philosophy of the Religion of Hermann Cohen
The article substantiates the idea that the philosophy of the religion of Cohen is an attempt at the synthesis of Kantianism and Judaism, and analyzes the main ideas of the head of the Marburg school of Neo-Kantianism, which, in his opinion, were to implement this synthesis within the framework of transcendental philosophy. There are two reasons that motivated Cohen to review Kant's assessment of the place and role of religion in the cultural progress of mankind: the desire to more accurately and consistently build his philosophical system, avoiding the dualism of the logical and ethical principles of thinking and at the same time breaking the formalism of the ethical principle itself, as well as the desire to write Judaism in the European tradition of the Enlightenment. The article traces three periods in the evolution of Cohen's views on religion, its place and role in the system of transcendental idealism and in the system of human culture: the first period conditionally covers the time from the appearance of the first fundamental work of the Marburg ethical philosopher “Kant's Foundation of Ethics” and ends with the first edition another fundamental work on the ethics “Ethics of Pure Will”, the third period, which provokes the most contradictory evaluations among researchers, marks two of Cohen's main works devoted to his philosophy of religion: “The Concept of Religion in the System of Philosophy” and “Religion of Reason from Jewish Sources”. It is in the latter work that there appears the theme of Revelation, which is described by the Marburgian thinker strictly within the framework of the correlation between God and man and the relationship through the mind of the man of Creation and Revelation.
Keywords: Cohen, Kant, Neo-Kantianism, system of philosophy, Judaism, religion of reason, philosophy of religion, messianism
Maxim A. Pylaev. Revelation as the Word of God in the Context of Philosophical Discourses by Karl Barth
The article analyzes the concept of the Word of God in theocentric theology of K. Barth, as well as a number of aspects of the theology of the early Karl Barth in terms of their philosophy founding. The author compares the block of philosophical-theological themes: the theory of temporality, dialectic, the concept of the beginning (Ursprung) and other types in philosophical discourses, used by K. Barth (Platonism, neo-kantianism, existentialism, scholasticism, phenomenological philosophy and other) with theology of K. Barth. The article provides a brief reconstruction of the theology of the Word of God by Karl Barth, as it is presented in the “Dogma of the Church”. The article is being tested the hypothesis that the early and late stage of his work K. Barth tried to explicate the form of Christian theology, which, absorbing primarily the most important achievements of philosophy ΧΙΧ–ΧΧ centuries, yet trying to stay free of them. Using various forms of philosophical discourses Karl Barth implements its own task to build a Christian theology beyond metaphysics (philosophy in General), history, and human existence.
Keywords: the Word of God, the Revelation, theology, existential philosophy, scholasticism, phenomenological philosophy
Richard Swinburne. Revelation (Transl. from English and Comments by Priest Evgeny Shilov)
It is a priori fairly probable that God would provide for human beings a revelation which would require a little effort to discover, revealing more about his own nature and how we can make ourselves fit it for closer union with him in Heaven. The revelation would need to be clothed in the presuppositions of the culture to which it was originally given, and God would need to establish a church to work out and explain its meaning to each new culture. The evidence that a purported revelation is a true revelation would be that its content is plausible and deep, and that it is backed up by God’s signature – that is a miraculous act which only God could do.
Keywords: God, church, miracle, revelation, culture
TEXTS AND INTERPRETATIONS
Ilshat R. Nasyrov. Revelation in Islam
Revelation (waḥy) plays an important role in the Islam based on the Quran. Muslims maintain that their Holy Book is the Word of God (Allah). The formation of Islamic concept of revelation was considerably influenced by two factors. One of them was the concept of revelation widely accepted in the Near East. Certain verses of the Quran themselves allude to the pre-Islamic Arabia religious tradition of inspiration. Islamic religious and philosophical thought developed various teachings of revelation. Among them were Peripatetic Arab School’s theory of revelation and Ibn Arabi’s Sufi doctrine of “Sainthood”. Muslim philosophers and mystics who philosophized rethought Abrahamic concept of revelation. Muslim Theology, moderate Sufism and Islamic traditionalism, however, generally rejected doctrines of revelation advanced by Peripatetic Arab School and philosophical Sufism.
Keywords: revelation, inspiration, Islam, the Quran, Muslim Theology, Sufism, Peripatetic Arabic school
Abu Hamid al-Ghazali. Excerpts from "The Revival of Religious Sciences" (Transl. from Arabic and Comments by Ilshat Nasyrov)
Andrey K. Sudakov. Martin Luther and the Old Testament
The article discusses Martin Luther’s views on the place and meaning of Moses the Prophet and of his Pentateuch, as a revelation of God’s will and of the law of God, in the spiritual history of mankind. In his debate with the radicals and the “Judaizers” of his time, Luther specifies three aspects of importance which Moses and the Old Testament have for the citizens of the realm of grace preached in the Gospel: Moses is a lawgiver for the Jews and merely a Teacher (of faith and love towards the only God) for Christians. In the books of the Script written by him, unique promises concerning the future Christ the Saviour are given and Moses presents us examples of faith and disbelief, as well as of the fortunes of the faithful and the unfaithful.
Keywords: Moses; Christ; law; grace; sin; salvation; faith; realm of law; realm of grace
Martin Luther. Preface to the Old Testament (Transl. from German and Comments by Andrey Sudakov)
Martin Luther. How Christians Should Regard Moses (Transl. from German and Comments by Andrey Sudakov)
Valeriya V. Sleptsova. Between Revelation and Authority
The rewiev is devoted to 2015 year published B.D. Sommer's book «Revelation and Authority: Sinai in Jewish Scripture and Tradition». Sommer analyses and interpretes texts of Exodus 19–24 and some more texts of Tora. He analyses postbiblical Jewish theological and philosophical texts by using his theory about participatory theory of revelation for effective co-existence of biblical scholarship and observant Judaism. The author of review critiques some of Sommer's ideas.
Keywords: biblical criticism, Heschel, Judaism, Jewish theology, Oral Tora, Revelation, Rosenzweig, philosophy of Judaism
Alexey M. Gaginsky. Revelation and the Science of Religion: Between Positivism and Postmodernism
The article deals with the book by A.V. Appolonov “The Science of Religion and Its Postmodern Critics” (2018), in which the author investigates both the methodological issues, associated with the discipline, and the opposition of religion and revelation. A.V. Appolonov criticizes many scholars, both well-known classics (K. Bart), and lesser-known but recognized authorities (W.K. Smith), as well as a number of Russian researchers. A.V. Appolonov defends the view that religion can be the object of an impartial analysis only if we a priori exclude the idea of supernatural revelation. The article will raise the question of how A.V. Appolonov justifies this approach to the study of religion and on what methodological preconditions it can be based.
Keywords: revelation, faith, religion, science, methodology, postmodernism, scholasticism