Institute of Philosophy
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  Tamara Dlugatch
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Tamara Dlugatch

Tamara Dlugatch

Tamara Borisovna Dlugach, Chief Research Fellow at the Department of Western Philosophy



Date and Place of Birth


Born August 19, 1935 in Kharkov (Ukrainian SSR, USSR)





  • Graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Philosophy, in 1959.
  • Post-graduate studies: Institute of Philosophy, The USSR Academy of Sciences (1962–1965).



Academic Degrees

  • PhD in Philosophy (1965). PhD Thesis: «Part and whole as categories of dialectical logic» (Institute of Philosopy, The USSR Academy of Sciences).
  • DSc in Philosophy (1987). DSc Thesis: «Diderot's paradoxes and problems of development of dialectics» (Institute of Philosopy, The USSR Academy of Sciences).
Fields of research
  • 18th Century French Philosophy;
  • 18th and 19th Century German Classical Philosophy;
  • Philosophy of Karl Marx.
Professional Activities
  • Chief Research Fellow at the Department of Western Philosophy, Institute of Philosophy;
  • Member of the Specialized Dissertation Council for defending Candidate (PhD) and Doctorate (DSc) theses in the history of philosophy;
  • Member of the Editorial Board of the History of Philosophy Yearbook, Institute of Philosophy;
  • Member of the International Society of Feuerbach Researchers (Germany);
  • Member of the International Hermann Cohen Society (Switzerland).
Teaching Experience

Lectures on history of philosophy (general course and lecture courses specialized in different periods of history of philosophy) for graduate and postgraduate students:


  • Philosophy in the Age of Enlightenment // State Academic University for Humanities, Faculty of Political Science (1996–2008), Faculty of Philosophy (1996– till now);
  • History of German Classical Philosophy // State Academic University for Humanities, Faculty of Political Science (1996–2008), Faculty of Philosophy (1996– till now).

List of Publications




  • Two Philosophical Reflections: From Holbach to Kant (A Comparative Historical Analysis). Moscow: Kanon+Reabilitatsiia, 2011. – 352 pages. – Hardcover. – ISBN: 978-5-88373-249-6 (in Russian)
The book makes an effort to establish successive connection between the «System of Nature» of Holbach and Kant’s «Critique of Pure Reason». Both Holbach and Kant were influenced by Newton’s mathematical natural philosophy. The author proves the idea about common philosophical space of the 17–19th centuries, determined by the domination of mechanics in thoughts of society. Not only the German Classical philosophy deserves to be called «Science of Knowledge». Despite existing distingueshes between systems of Descartes, Leibniz, Spinoza, Enlightenment thinkers and German philosophers, they all found out the background of scientific knowledge and theoretical reason in general, and in this sense these theories were the «sciences of knowledge». In the «System of Nature», one of the first such kind of systems, Holbach was able to notice the principals of knowing mind behind the principals of scientific knowledge, to transform scientific methods into the universal principles of nature study, and make complex scientific truths accessible to all via the language of common sense. Keeping the orientation on Newtonian mechanics, Kant chooses new approaches within the «science of knowledge». After comprehending the scientific principle of construction, Kant transfers it to philosophy as a thought experiment, which takes over the functions of spiritual and practical activity. Defining spiritual and practical activity as a general effect on the construction of general subject of knowledge, the author investigates the emergence of a priori in Kant's philosophy.
  • From Kant to Fichte (A Comparative Historical Analysis). Moscow: Kanon+Reabilitatsiia, 2010. – 368 pages. – Hardcover. – ISBN: 978-5-88373-228-3 (in Russian)
The aim of the author is investigation of relationship between theory and practice in philosophy of Kant and Fichte. During the investigation it appears that the practice has not only moral sense in their theories, but also gets the character of spiritual practice, with a thought experiment behind. In this guise scientific experiment becomes a part of philosophical theory. Pondering on the thought experiment as the construction of objects of knowledge, Kant and Fichte consider serving in this form the basis of the theory of practice. On this basis all heuristic concepts and categories of German thinkers get their development.
  • Three Portraits of the Age of Enlightenment: Montesquieu. Voltaire. Rousseau (from the Conception of the Enlightened Absolutism to the Theories of Civil Society). Moscow: Institute of Philosophy, 2006. – 256 pages. – Paperback. – ISBN: 5-9540-0050-6 (in Russian)
The book examines works of prominent figures of the French Enlightenment – Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. It explains why the most appropriate polity for Voltaire is Enlightened Absolutism, for Montesquieu – limited legislature monarchy, and for Rousseau – republic. The study clarifies the concept of «Сivil society» and the «State of law», focusing on the principles of separation of powers, universal and equal suffrage, as well as private property as the basis of civil society. The author analyses the «Social Contract» of Rousseau and democratic Declarations appeared at its base at the end of the 18th century. The value of the liberal and democratic ideas of thinkers of the past is revealed in the context of understanding the democratic development of the 20th century including Russia; the ideas of the past correlate with thoughts of contemporary philosophers – Jürgen Habermas (Germany) and Vladimir Bibler (Russia).
  • The Problem of Existing in German Philosophy and Contemporaneity. Moscow: Institute of Philosophy, 2002. – Paperback. (in Russian)
  • The Feat of the Common Sense, or Birth of the Sovereign Personality (Holbach, Helvetius, Rousseau). Moscow: Nauka, 1995. – 221 pages. (in Russian)
  • Immanuel Kant: From Early Works to the «Critique of Pure Reason». Moscow: Nauka, 1990. – 136 pages. (in Russian)
  • The Problem of Unity of the Theory and Practice in German Classical Philosophy (Kant, Fichte). Moscow: Nauka, 1986. (in Russian)
  • A Man in the World of Technics and the Technics in the World of the Man. Moscow: Gospoliizdat, 1978. (in Russian)




The author explores several insufficiently clarified places in Kant's first Critique. One such place is a passage that deals with the problem of synthesis. It is known that in order to obtain the object of knowledge, one must unite all sensations. Synthesis is responsible for this. However, on closer inspection, it turns out that synthesis is nothing more than a productive force of imagination. The author argues that the idea of this force represents Kant’s understanding of the thought experiment, which was formed in science in the middle of the 17th century. A further consideration shows that the productive imagination is essentially reduced to the mental construction of an object; this mental construction is the only reason why we understand the object. However, in order to build an object, one needs to know it, and in order to know it, one needs to build it. This logical circle was not resolved by Kant. Further, the impact of the productive imagination is seen in the construction of an object of pure sensory contemplation. The author argues that this object is nothing but the “universal object”, that is, a model for all individual sensory samples. The mental construction of such an object is a scheme, i.e. a construction of an object along the most essential lines of its existence. The universal object reveals the essence of the mental object as an object of cognition. Finally, the relation between a priori and a particular sensation as an intense magnitude is argued to be associated with Kant’s desire to present the object of cognition as an object within thought, which is not identified with the thought. However, for Kant only the opposite approach is acceptable, according to which the mental object appears only as an impression of a thing acting from the outside, that is, as a phenomenon. Yet Kant also outlines another solution proposed by a number of thinkers of his time. Kant does not develop it, because he is completely satisfied with representation (Vorstellung), which relates to the idea, according to which the mental space is completely filled with all mental elements – the pure sense object, concepts, and the categories. He merely identifies it. Kant, thus, provides a completely original approach to the process of cognition. The author shows that Kant's influence can also be seen in our time. In order to appreciate this influence one must clarify the notion of the mental object and identify the characteristics of the thing that acts from the outside.

  • "Kant was always of interest to me”. Interview with Tamara Dlugatch" (Interview was conducted by Alexey Savin), Istoriko-filosofskii ezhegodnik [History of Philosophy Yearbook], 2019, vol.34, pages 290‒303. DOI: 10.21267/AQUILO.2019.34.43454

In this interview the famous Russian philosopher and historian of philosophy Tamara Borisovna Dlugach ‒ authoritative expert in Classical German philosophy and philosophy of Enlightenment, author of more than 10 monographs ‒ shares memories of her life and work: about years of study in philosophical faculty at Lomonosov Moscow University, about entering the postgraduate course at the Institute of Philosophy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the first years of professional activity, about interesting events in the life of the Institute of Philosophy in 1970‒1990s, about colleagues and about her work in the sector of the history of Western philosophy under the direction of T.I. Oiserman and N.V. Motroshilova, studies on philosophical works and ideas of I.Kant and D.Diderot, as well as on participation at the seminars of V.S. Bibler, on the importance of the works of Evald Ilyenkov for the philosophy of the Soviet period. This interview continues the section “Our Interviews” of the Yearbook, that was opened by the interviews with Alexander Stoliarov (2017) and Nelly Motroshilova (2018). Interview was conducted by Alexey Savin.

  • Dlugatsch T. "Zur Dialektik von Diderots Paradoxien", Das Argument. 2019. No. 2, pages 225‒231. (in German)


"Florensky and Kant: A Man in Space and Time", Istoriko-filosofskii ezhegodnik [History of Philosophy Yearbook], 2018, vol. 33, pages 242–266. (in Russian)

The article deals with the perception of Pavel Florensky of the main philosophical principles of Kant. During analyzing Kant’s philosophy a certain logical circle was first revealed. It consists in the fact that it is impossible to know an object without constructing it, but it is impossible to construct it without knowing it. This remains a problem for Kant. The author explains how, from the standpoint of Orthodox symbolism, Florensky criticizes the Kantian principle of human autonomy. The attention is drawn to the difficulties of Florensky to understand the symbol as the unity of the phenomenon and noumena. The ambiguous understanding of the Kantian noumen is removed by Florensky in the reduction of the noumenon to speculative entities. Time flows in the opposite direction from the effects to the cause for them, and the space "turns out" through itself and becomes imaginary. These ideas of Father Pavel can be further understood through the prism of science: thus, a slowing of metabolism in lethargic processes and hibernation of animals indicates a significant change in their time. The question of the reverse course of time in mathematics is touched upon. Attention is paid to the idea of Florensky about the reverse flow of time in creative processes. The article highly appreciates Florensky’s desire to understand spatial vision in cultural and historical terms. His research prospects are fruitful. The author proves that it is necessary to compare Western and Russian philosophical ideas.

"Voltaire and the divine Emilie", in: Philosophical Emanations of Love. Compiled and edited by Yulia V. Sineokaya. Moscow, LRC Publishing House, 2018, pages 434–449. (in Russian)

Voltaire met Baroness Emilie du Chatelet in Paris, in the late 1720s. She was his life’s companion for sixteen years. She was an outstanding woman who was interested in natural sciences and mathematics. She and Voltaire spent sixteen years at her Sire estate on the border with Lorraine. There Voltaire wrote his historical work An Essay on Universal History, the Manners, and Spirit of Nations, the preface to his Philosophy of History, The Virgin of Orleans, several dramas and historical works. It was there that his concept of enlightened absolutism was taken shape. Emilie did not only share his academic pursuits, but took care of him, protected him and showed concern for his health. For the first time Voltaire found a home and a like-minded woman he loved. The years spent with Emilie were full of joy and creative endeavor. After Emilie’s sudden death in 1749, Voltaire left for Prussia to Friedrich II.

"Denis Diderot and Sophie Volland", in: Philosophical Emanations of Love. Compiled and edited by Yulia V. Sineokaya. Moscow, LRC Publishing House, 2018, pages 450–465. (in Russian)

Denis Diderot met his love Sophie Volland in 1757. At the time he was known only as the publisher of the Encyclopedia. But their correspondence lasted for fifteen years, and they had some personal meetings, so that Sophie knew about all the events in Diderot’s life, his successes and failures. Communicating with her he became a famous philosopher interested in the problems of living and non-living matter, the development of matter and its properties. Diderot wrote to Sophie about everything, his domestic affairs, his work on the Encyclopedia and his trip to Russia. With her feminine flair she helped him to cope with his business and domestic problems. One can see from Diderot’s letters how welleducated were French women in the 18th century and how they contributed to creating the cultural atmosphere of Paris.


The article clarifies the relationship between necessity and chance in history, it is viewed through the views of prominent French enlighteners – the materialists Holbach, Helvétius and Diderot. Holbach was one of the first in the 18th century who identified necessity and causality by attributing randomness to phenomena which causes we do not know. In his opinion, everything in the world is rigidly and unambiguous defined; if we know the cause of the present event, then we can think that it will be the cause of the next and so on. There is not a single particle of matter, not a single person that would not be where they should be and they should act exactly as they act, for this had been determined by the preceding series of causes. Holbach’s views had outstripped the findings of P. Laplace, who described the alleged Demon, who knew absolutely everything in the past and the future. It seems that the views of Helvétius, who defended the power of chance, refute the teaching of Holbach. But this is not so: if all that happens is necessary, then chance is just as necessary, and arguments of Helvétius are directed toward this goal. Helvétius focuses on education, proving that everything is determined by the case. Denis Diderot, reflecting on the way of thinking of his friends, comes to the conclusion that the arguments of necessity turn out to be the justifications of randomness, and vice versa, i.e. move from the thesis to the antithesis, and vice versa, and, in this way, open up a special, non-Hegelian dialectic in their reasoning. This is the subject of his dialogues “Le Neveu de Rameau” (Rameau’s nephew) and “Jacques le fataliste” (Jacques-fatalist). The reflections on French decisions make possible to outline the prospects for today’s researches of the problem. The works of V.S.  Stepin have the great influence on the development of them.

The article raises the question of conscience as a moral impulse to the life of each individual. A brief history of the issue is considered. In connection with the history of the issue, the views of such French philosophers of the eighteenth century as Lametri and Rousseau are analyzed. Lametri proceeds from the belief that all human behavior, all properties, desires, are determined by mechanical laws. In Lametri's opinion people's striving for physical pleasures is recognized as mechanically conditioned, since the physiological processes are basically the movements of the smallest atoms of the sense organs. The whole human life is determined by the desire for physical pleasures and the desire to avoid suffering. Conscience wouldn`t be here, its presence is in fact caused by a wrong childhood education, ignorant ideas. If so, then, according to Lametrie, a human being needs to get rid of it. Rousseau, on the contrary, regards the conscience as the most important motivator of the moral actions of a human being; it is closely connected with religious faith. God put moral impulses in the heart of a human being and made conscience a voice of the soul. According to Rousseau, conscience is determined by the social state of a person. Distinguishing between good and evil, a person strives to treat all people «in accordance with conscience”. Conscience is not prejudice, but the deepest property of the human soul. It has nothing to do with sensual pleasures, but with demands for altruism. Often people even sacrifice their lives to save the life of another person.




2014 and earlier

  • Denis Diderot and adventures of dialogical thinking // Problems of Philosophy [Voprosy Philosophii]. 2013. No.8. Pages 139–145 (in Russian)
The aim of the article is to show a particular inconsistent of thinking at the Enlightenment. Ambivalence of reasoning is evidence of special «paradoxical» style of thinking. In connection with this Denis Diderot is considered as «Socrates of the Enlightenment».
  • Rousseau and the Social Contract // History of Philosophy Yearbook'2012. Moscow, Kanon Plus, 2013. P. 177–190 (in Russian)
The article analyses such key statements of Rousseau's Social Contract theory as sovereignty, general will, act of sovereignty. It contains the explaination why according to Rousseau the second proper contract needs to be set up. The author also pays attention to the movement from the top downward (from legal parties) and from the bottom upward (from the voice of society – Öffentlichkeit), which makes democracy stronger.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau's 300th Anniversary // Problems of Philosophy [Voprosy Philosophii]. 2013. No.3. P. 176–180. (in Russian)
  • K.Marx today // Philosophical Sciences. 2012. No.7. P. 52–72. (in Russian)
The article is devoted to the Marx's theory of activity; special nature of this activity as activity directed to itself is considered. Necessity of appearance of consciousness is investigated in connection with this. Development possibilities of Marxs concepts of freedom and progress are considered. Critical understanding of spontaneity of historical process is given
  • Subject activity in theory of Fichte and Marx. Part 1. Fichte and subject activity. Part 2. Marx about subject activity // The Bulletin of Pushkin Leningrad State University. 2011. Tom 2. No.4. P. 37–46; 2012. Tom 2. No.1. P. 25–36. (in Russian)
The paper presents a comparative analysis of understanding the subject matter of the philosophy of Fichte and Marx to show the connection between the views of the latter with the teachings of the German «classical» philosophers, and above all Fichte, to identify their similarities and show fundamental differences. The first part (1) examines his treatment of the subject and an understanding of the features disclosed primarily as the ideal process of human impact on nature, recognizing will, reason and freedom as the decisive factors, which then considered as the matter actions for changing the nature. The second part (2) considers Marx's understanding of the subject activity as a reflexive activity, aimed at itself. The emphasis is on the self-transformation of the subject. It explains the emergence of consciousness and its active role in changing the reality, it turns out the possibility of freedom. Marx's understanding of the subject is compared with an understanding of Fichte.
  • Rethinking the Kant's a priori doctrine // Philosophical Journal. 2011. No.2(7). P. 45–57. (in Russian)
The author's aim is to reveal in Kant's doctrine the presence of yet another kind of a priori knowledge, a rather awkward one, since it is contained in... perception. It is demonstrated that this particular kind of a priori is related to the requirement of thingness within knowledge, which is not the thing as such, but the reality. One has, therefore, to examine the relation of a thing to reality. Another and no less strange hypothesis to be proved is that the a priori knowledge not only is contained in thinking but that it acquires its form through thinking. The proof is based on an analysis of the notions of scheme and schematism.
  • Does it need to reflect on the theory of Marx today? // Problems of Philosophy [Voprosy Philosophii]. 2011. No.7. P. 127–137. (in Russian)
  • The French Enlightenment Philosophers in search of a method // Philosophical Sciences [Philosophskie nauki]. 2011. No.2. P. 97–110. (in Russian)
  • The Philosophical Reflection of 18th and 19th centuries on Science // Philosophical Journal. 2010. No.1(4). P. 46–65. (in Russian)
The paper demonstrates that, in the 18th and 19th centuries, philosophy was developed with reference to science viewed as the «science of knowledge» (Wissenschaftslehre). During this period, philosophers regarded the methods of science and scientific estimates as ultimate and unavoidable principles of all knowledge. For Kant anf Fichte, e.g., the principal of experimental design became a kind of spiritual and practical action which assumed the role of the foundation of knowledge. In Hegel, the motion of substance expresses, among other things, the develompent of notion as the key element of the system of science. The logic of science had indisputable influence on philosophical logic, which manifested itself in the fact that the deductive trend of thought was regarded a chief factor, that scientific thought was deemed to progress from being towards the notion, etc. Apart from this, the various forms of the «science of knowledge», by virtue of thier being essantially philosophical theories, transcended the boundaries of sciences to be employed to solve strictly philosophical problems of the foundations of being and conscience and the correlation of conscience with being.
  • Civil Society and the Social Contract // Philosophy of Knowledge. For the anniversary of L.A.Mikeshina / Under the editorship of Tatiana Schedrina. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2010. P. 432–440.
  • Sanity in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit. Common Sense as a Philosophical Culture of the Age of Enlightenment // Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit in the Context of Contemporary Hegelian Studies / Executive Editor: N.V.Motroshilova. Moscow: Kanon Plus, 2010. P. 367–388.
  • Vladimir Bibler as a Phenomenon of Philosophical Culture // Problems of Philosophy [Voprosy Philosophii]. 2010. No 9. P. 154–166. (in Russian)
  • The Concept and the Judgment in philosophy of Hermann Cohen // German and Russian Neo-Kantianism: between the Theory of Knowledge and the Critique of Culture / Under the Editorship I.N.Griftsova and N.A.Dmitrieva. Moscow: ROSSPEN. P. 221–227. (in Russian)
  • Tamara Dlougač. Die Perestrojka in der heutigen sowjetischen Philosophie // Studies in Soviet Thought. 1991. 42, No.3 (November). P. 207–220.
  • Tamara Dlougatsch. Ich und Du in Liebe, Glaube, und Kultur: Feuerbach–Buber–Bachtin // Ludwig Feuerbach und die Philosophie der Zukunft. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1990. S. 179–195.


 Conferences (papers)
  • «The Social Contract as a Categorical Imperative of the Common Sense» // International Jubilee Conference Jean-Jacques Rousseau and rousseauism in intellectual Western culture of 1821 Centuries (A.M.Gorky Institute of World Literature, with support of the Embassy of Switzerland in Russian Federation, November 13–14, 2012.
  • «On several unnoticed but essential discoveries of Rousseau» // Jubilee Scientific Conference 300 years since the birth of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–2012), Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, May 15, 2012.

Researcher ID

  • Web of Science Researcher ID:  J-8962-2018
  • Scopus Author ID:  55694496600
  • e-mail: