Institute of Philosophy
of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  Erikh Soloviev
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Erikh Soloviev

Erikh Jurievitch Soloviev

Erikh Jurievitch Soloviev, Professor, Chief Research Fellow of the Department of Western Philosophy



Date and Place of Birth

Born April 20, 1934 in Nizhnij Tagil (Russian Federation, USSR).




Graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Philosophy, in 1957.



Academic Degrees

  • PhD in Philosophy (1967). PhD Thesis: Existentialism and scientific knowledge (Moscow Lomonosov State University).
  • DSc in Philosophy (1991). DSc Thesis: The epoch of the early bourgeois revolutions and Kant's practical philosophy (Institute of Philosopy, the USSR Academy of Sciences).
Titles Professor (2002)

Professional Activities

  • Chief Reserch Fellow at the Department of the History of Western Philosophy;
  • Visiting Professor at Yaroslav the Wise Novgorod State University;
  • Member of the Academic Council, Institute of Philosophy, RAS;
  • Member of the Editorial Board of the «History of Philosophy Yearbook».

List of Publications

(the most important)



  • Categorical Imperative of Morality and Legality. Moscow: Progress-Tradition, 2005.  Contents (in Russian)
  • Ιmmanuel Kant: Complementarity of Morality and Legality. Moscow: Nauka, 1993. (in Russian)
  • An Invincible Heretic (Martin Luther and His Epoch). Moscow: Molodaya Guardiya, 1984. (in Russian)





  • Philosophy as critique of ideologies. Part II // The Philosophy Journal. Vol. 10. No 3. Pages 531. DOI: 10.21146/2072-0726-2017-10-3-5-31
This article seeks to explain a specific interpretation of the relation between philosophy and ideology which emerged in the period of 'Moscowphilosophical thaw' and gained considerable popularity with the Sixtiers. The author centres his attention on two neo-Marxist theories, the theory of thinking as developed by Evald Ilyenkov and the theory of consciousness expounded by Merab Mamardashvili. It can be shown that both theories have much in common: they both use the term 'ideology' only as a pejorative; they share a similar understanding of 'the ideal' (Ilyenkov) and 'the form' (Mamardashvili); they give equally deep consideration to the problem of illusions, objective appearances, 'objective forms of thinking' and 'converted forms'. Not only do Ilyenkov and Mamardashvili engage in a complex reciprocal interaction, they also interact with Kant as author of the essay on What is Enlightenment? An analysis of this 'timeless co-authorship' demonstrates that no struggle for the liberation of humankind from the power of ideologies can be successful unless a) a radical reform of education has been accomplished, b) philosophical education is promoted in a form that is free from the drawbacks and limitations of traditional enlightenment.
  • Philosophy as critique of ideologies. Part I  // The Philosophy Journal. Vol. 9. No 4. Pages 5–17. DOI: 10.21146/2072-0726-2016-9-4-5-17
The author brings under scrutiny the relation between philosophy and ideology in the situation of information warfare. It is characterized by the phenomenon of mirror ideological symmetry where both sides of the conflict tend to employ the same type of sophistry and casuistry. This ideological symmetry results in mobilizing the mass audiences which serves two main intentions: (a) admonishing and (b) inspiring them toward a suggested project. The admonition effect is reached by means of stirring up preemptive distrust, creating the ‘enemy image’, implanting discrediting evidence and propagating a cult of vigilance. The standard discourse of ideological admonition is a ‘collage of separate information bits’ which sanctions logical impudence and the loss of logical memory. This paper proposes to ground the logical defence of consciousness and of thinking in the very nature of discursivity, by resorting to logical and linguistic analysis. The inspiring projects neatly conform to the notion of mission; they are still afloat, fraught with dangerous geopolitical myths, interethnic intolerance and revived historicist speculations. According to the author, to find a philosophical response to such idealogical threats one needs to promote a culture of sceptical verification of social expectations and hopes, to observe a strict distinction between a programme and an ideal (or goal), and to further develop the concept of open history.
  • The Philosophical-Historical Views of Herzen as a Problem in the History of West European Philosophy // Russian Studies in Philosophy. Winter 20122013. Vol. 51. No 3. P. 8395.
The author places Herzen's view of history in the context of the development of West European political philosophy—in particular, the concepts of «open history» and «historicism».
  • «Let me not lose my mind, oh God...»: The Maxim of Self-Preservation in Kant’s Anthropology // History of Philosophy Yearbook 2011 (Moscow: Institute of Philosophy). Moscow, 2012. P. 205232 (in Russian)
The article covers a previously neglected aspect of «Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht». Kant treats reason (intellect) as a guard and custodian of a wholeness of inner experience; and also of a successive unity of consciousness in time; and, lastly, of the very mental sanity of man. But to realize this mission reason has to know and respect the limits of its capacities. Hence arises an ethical concept of «discipline of reason itself», which is unique in the age of Enlightenment. The discipline of reason includes a requirement of its obligatory independence and strict logical consistency of thinking, and at the same time it comprises systematic agnosticism and readiness for public verification of any judgment whatsoever. And it is concurrent with defending the fundamental human rights such as the freedom of speech and discussions.
  • The Philosophical-Legal Depth of Chekhov’s Story «A Malefactor». Philosophical Views of Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov // Russian Studies in Philosophy. 2011. Vol. 50. No 2. P. 7082.
Written for the 150th anniversary of Chekhov's birth, the article is an attempt at literary analysis oriented toward the legal problematic and themes central to philosophy of right. Using as an example the well-known story A Malefactor, the article shows how the great writer introduced into the public consciousness of postreform Russia the profound antithetic that burdened the legal theory of criminal intent and charges. The theme of literary prose as discourse is discussed as well.
  • The Existential Soteriology of Merab Mamardashvili // Russian Studies in Philosophy. 2010. Vol. 49, no. 1 (Summer). P. 5373.
The author analyzes Mamardashvili's philosophical views by putting them in the context of contemporary Western philosophy, especially existentialism. He identifies unique features of Mamardashvili's philosophizing that he equates with existentially interpreted soteriology.
  • The Institute of Philosophy Has Long Been an Institution of Civil Society // Russian Studies in Philosophy. 2009. Vol. 48, no. 1. P. 83100.
Contrary to the widespread opinion that in the Soviet period the Institute of Philosophy had been a mere citadel of ideological dogmatism, the author shows that even in the most oppressive periods of stagnation not only did the institute resist the imposition of this atmosphere, but it openly refused to take part in any campaign of condemnation or ideological reprisal against nonconformists, whether in philosophy, literature, economics, or politics. The reigning atmosphere in the institute at that time was one of glasnost, open argument, and constructive discussion. And the mediator of such an environment was the institute's Communist Party chapter, which among other positive influences, provided the institute and its associates with real protection from Stalinism, hostility, and societal pressure. While in the country as a whole there had never been a civil society, the institute always possessed and actively displayed the key features of such an institution. The famous wall newspaper published at the institute was one sign of such its civic-social maturity.
  • Erich Solowjow. Die zweite Formel des kategorischen Imperativs in der moralisch-rechtlichen Lehre Wladimir Solowjows // Kant in Spiegel der russischen Kantforschung heute / Hrsg. von Nelly Motroschilowa und Norbert Hinske. Stuttgart; Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-holzboog, 2008. S. 145–152.
  • The Humanistic-Legal Problematic in Solov'ev's Philosophical Journalism // Studies in East European Thought. Special Issue / Ed. by Evert van der Zweerde. Vol. 55, Number 2 (June 2003). P. 115139. 
Could anyone shake nineteenth century Russia out of her philosophico-juridical stagnation? Was there anyone who dared speak of rights, of freedoms based on vital principles? Was there anyone who had the courage to suggest that the law of force be turned into recognition of the force of law, or was bold enough to call for the revival of natural law on its idealist reading? Solov'ëv turned out to be the thinker who was able to do these things. An amateur in juridical questions, remote from the enlightenment rationalizations of political liberalism, Solov'ëv set out to lay the basis for juridical freedom in way that was unexpected philosophically and culturally.
  • SekularisationHistorizismusMarxismus. Menschgottum und Fortschrittreligion in der philosophischen Publizistik S.N. Bulgakovs // Das Christentum und die totalitären Herausforderunden des 20. Jahrhunderts: Rußland, Deutschland, Italien und Polen im Vergleich / Hrsg. von Leonid Luks. Köln; Weimar; Wien: Böhlau Verlag, 2002. S. 89101.
  • Der Begriff des Rechts bei Hegel und Kant // Die Folgen des Hegelianismus (Philosophie, Religion und Politik im Abschied von der Moderne / Hrsg. von Peter Koslowski. München: Wilhelm Fink, 1998.
  • Ethische Begründung des Rechts bei Vladimir Solovi'ev // Russisches Denken im europaeischen Dialog / Hrsg. von Maria Deppermann. Innsbruck; Wien: Studien-Verlag, 1998. S. 311318.
  • Law as Politians' Morality // Justice and Democracy: Cross-Cultural Approach. Honolulu, 1997.
  • Not a Forecast, but a Social Prophesy // Studies in East European Thought 45, no. 12. P. 3749.
  • Die Entstehung einer personalistischen Philosophie im heutigen Russland // Studies in Soviet Thought 44. 1992. P. 193201.



  • «The Philosophical-Historical Views of Herzen as a Problem in the History of West European Philosophy» // at the International Scientific Conference Alexander Herzen and historical destinies of Russia, dedicated to the 200 anniversary of A.Herzen's birth (Moscow, Institute of Philosophy, RAS), on June 20–21, 2012.
  • «History of Philosophy as Museum and Theatre» // at the All-Russian Scientific Conference History of Philosophy: Challenges of the 21st Century (Moscow, Institute of Philosophy, RAS), on November 15–16, 2012.
  • «The Philosophical-Legal Depth of Chekhov’s Story «A Malefactor» // at the 7th Scientific Conference Problems of the Russian Selfconsciousness: Word outlook of Anton Chekhov (Moscow and Rostov-on-Don, October 12–15, 2010), Institute of Philosophy, RAS.
  • «Theory of Nonviolence and the Problems of the Legal Nihilism» //at the 6th Scientific Conference Problems of the Russian Selfconsciousness: Word outlook of Leo Tolstoy (Moscow and Tula, May 20–22, 2010), Institute of Philosophy, RAS.
  • «Two Commonplace Preconceptions in Dealing with the Genesis and the Meaning of Human Rights» // at the International Conference Philosophy in the Dialogue of Cultures at the International UNESCO Day of Philosophy; the Round-table meeting «Breaking Free from Stereotypes in the History of Philosophy» (Moscow, Institute of Philosophy, RAS), on November 14–15, 2009.
  • «Theory of Nonviolence and the Problem of Constitutional State» // at the International Kant Congress (Moscow, Institute of Philosophy, RAS), on June, 2004.


  • Silver Medal «For Contribution in the Development of Philosophy» (2010).